Food Safety & Quality Assurance Brought to you by: The Iowa 4-H Livestock Department
All 4-H / FFA members who exhibit the following species need to be FSQA Certified • Beef • Dairy Cattle • Goats (Dairy & Meat) • Poultry (Chicken, Turkey, Duck, Geese, etc) • Rabbits • Sheep • Swine
FSQA Training Options • Juniors – Ages 9 -11 must attended every year. • Intermediates – Ages 12 – 14 (January 1) May attend an FSQA session every year or they may test out until they reach a 4-H senior level at age 15. • Seniors – Ages 15 -18 (January 1) May attend an FSQA session every year or they may test out. At the age of 19 they must obtain an adult status with PQA or BQA. • Check with your county extension office for other specific requirements !
Testing Out of FSQA • Intermediates and Seniors may test out of attending yearly FSQA sessions. • To do so – they must take a 20 (I) or 30 (S) question exam and receive a 70% passing score. • At one setting, they may take a different exam 3 times if necessary to pass. • Check with your county extension office for the testing dates / times and for any specific requirements for testing out.
Why FSQA? • 17 million pounds of meat produced by Iowa 4-H’ers each year • Reputation of the 4-H program. • 4-H’ers need to be responsible to the consumer and the food industry. • Industry requirements must be met and maintained. • Many 4-H’ers are further away from traditional food animal production.
Who is responsible for safe food? • Producers • Handlers • Processors • Food Suppliers • Consumers
4-Her’s Responsibility • Understand and follow the seven Good Production Practices • Produce safe food products for consumers
Survey of Americans: • 9 out of 10 • In favor of additional food safety measures • COOL implementation • 64% believe imported foods are often or sometimes unsafe • 58% worry about bacterial contamination of the food supply Pew-commissioned poll – Hart Research and Public Opinion
Current Regulatory Agencies Food and Drug Administration • Regulates medicated animal feed and most health products • Approves products and sets tolerance levels for antimicrobials • Sets tolerance levels for pesticides used in animal production • Food Safety and Inspection Service • Inspects carcasses in Federally inspected packing plants • Examines plant sanitation • Approves plant sanitation
HAACP • Hazard • Analysis and • Critical • Control • Points • A system used in meat packing plants to prevent food safety problems • Regulated by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
HAACP • Hazards can be identified as: • Microbial contamination • Bacteria, virus, protozoa • Chemical Hazards • Antimicrobial and chemical tissue residues • Physical Hazards • Broken needles or metal
Resources • Online Materials • http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/projects/livestock/FSQA.htm • FSQA Manual • Activity Guide • Youth PQA Plus Materials • http://www.pork.org/Producers/YPQAP.aspx?c=YPQAP • Iowa BQA Manual • 4-H Project Manuals
Good Production Practices • Keep accurate records • Veterinary Client Patient Relationship • Healthy production practices • Proper care and handling • Feed and Feed Additives • Biosecurity and Animal Welfare • Exhibit strong character traits (ethics)
Good Production Practices in Depth • GPP 5 – Feed & Feed Additives • GPP 6 – Biosecurity and Animal Welfare • GPP 7 – Ethics
Feed & Feed Additives GPP #5
Feeding Program Goal: Most economical conversion of nutrients into lean (muscle) tissue growth or milk production while maintaining animal well-being and increasing the quality of the animal as well as protecting the surrounding environment
Digestive Systems • Monogastric(Simple Stomach) • Consumes diets high in energy & low in fiber – ex: cereal grains (corn, barley, oats, wheat) and high protein sources such as soybean meal, fish meal, etc. • Ruminant (Four compartments to the Stomach) • Consumes diets low in energy and high in fiber – ex: Forages such as pasture, hay, corn and alfalfa silage, etc.
Example Activity Handout - “Digestive Tract of Farm Animals”
Beak Esophagus Crop (2”) Small Intestine (55”) Proventriculus Gizzard (2”) Pancreas Ceca (7”) Large Intestine (4”) Cloaca Chicken
Pig _________________________________________ Stomach (2 gal) Large Intestine (16’, 2 gal) Esophagus Mouth Cecum (10”, 0.5 gal) Small intestine (60’, 2.5 gal)
Balanced Diet • Energy (Carbohydrates & Essential Fatty Acids) • Corn, Barley, Wheat, Cereal by-products, Fat • Protein & Amino Acids • Soybean Meal, Fish Meal, Grains, etc. • Minerals • Limestone, Dicalcium Phosphorus, Iron, Zinc, etc. • Vitamins • Vitamin A, D, E Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid • Water
Adequate and Safe Feeds • Read and retain feed labels • Understand the nutrient needs of the animal • Provide a balanced ration • Ensure feed quality and safety • Follow Good Manufacturing Practices
Feed Mycotoxins Hot Topic • A type of poison produced by mold • Found in corn due to very wet weather during the harvest season • Animals (mainly pigs) will not eat the feed • Low performance/weight gain • May want to test a feed sample to see if mycotoxins are present
Feed Labels Feed labels must contain… • Brand and/or product name • Intended species and production phase • Medicated • Guaranteed Analysis • Ingredients • Feeding Directions or Mixing Directions • Warning or Caution • Manufacturer’s name and address • Net Weight
Example Activity Handout – “Feed Tag Information”
Livestock Water Requirements • The most important nutrient that you can give to your animal • Water constitutes ~ 60 -70 % of an animal’s live weight • An animal can live ~ 45 – 60 days without food but only ~ 3 – 7 days without water
Relationship between Water and Feed • Water quality and quantity will affect feed consumption and animal health • Therefore, if you want maximum gain or production from your animals water quality and quantity must be considered. • Think about the Derby contests; Milk production; Animal growth for the fair • Are you monitoring your water supply? Has it been tested?
Feed Additives • Antibacterial agents • Medications used to improve health and performance • FDA approved • Antibiotics
Feed Additives • Growth modulators • Compound that alters nutrient use in animal • Ractopamine hydrochloride (Elanco Animal Health) sends energy into muscle growth instead of fat • PAYLEAN - Swine • OPTAFLEXX- Cattle • Probiotics • Living bacteria or yeast to enhance digestive tract • Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces, Bacillus
Example Activity Handout – “Producing Safe Foods Includes No Residue in Show Animals.
Example Activity Handout – “Paylean and Optaflex Labels” http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/projects/livestock/FSQA.htm
Paylean – Example of dilution in a diet • Added to a diet at 9 grams / ton • Ton = 2000 lbs • 1 lb = 454 grams • 2000 x 454 = 908,000 grams • Ratio of 907, 991 : 9 = 908,000 grams or 1 ton • Analogy – 1 gram = 1 person • Iowa population is ~ 3,000,000 people - so compare mixing 9 people in 1/3 of the population of Iowa. (Des Moines is ~ 200,000 people (or mixing 2 people in Des Moines)
Reminder Certain Feed Additives for Certain Animals • Paylean and Optaflexx NOT approved for sheep • Be certain that what you are feeding is approved for your animal • Talk to your vet
Feed Additives • Anthemintics (dewormers) Feed – Water - Injection • Organic acids • Reduces stomach pH which can increase protein digestion • Reduces coliforms in intestines • Preserves feed quality • Citric acid, fumaric acid (non-ruminants)
Grinding • Pelleting • Flaking • Extruding • Roasting Feed Processing
Grinding • Increases surface area to improve digestion • Corn, barley, wheat, hay Feed Processing
Feed Processing • Pelleting • Finely ground material, steamed and extruded • Reduces waste and dust in feed • Reduces animal sorting • More costly • Increases feed efficiency – less feed per lb. of gain
Extruding • Usually done to individual ingredients of ration • Dog food • Ground material forced through a die under pressure Feed Processing
Feed Processing • Roasting • Soybeans contain anti-nutritional factor that must be heated to inactivate it before feeding to swine
Feed Handling & Storage • Identify feed • Keep storage area clean • Number or label bins • Inspect steel bins for leaks, mold • Control rodents • Clean up spills • Do not store near chemicals
Feeding Livestock • Limit feeding • Sow fed 5# feed per day • Beef cattle fed once per day • Self feeding • Feed remains in bunk / feeders at all time for animal consumption
Feeding Livestock • Provide enough feeder space • Keep equipment in good repair • Avoid spills to control rodents • Adjust feeders to reduce waste • Monitor feeders daily to be sure feed is available • Adjust feeding amount daily so leftovers don’t spoil
Feeding Livestock • Watch for sorting…indicates quality problems • Plenty of water • Clean waters frequently • Clean feed system after using medicated feeds • Clean and disinfect feed and water equipment between groups