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Food Safety & Toxicology

Food Safety & Toxicology. What is Food Safety?. Food Safety is making a food safe to eat and free of disease causing agents such as: Too many infectious agents Toxic chemicals Foreign objects. What is Food Quality?.

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Food Safety & Toxicology

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  1. Food Safety & Toxicology

  2. What is Food Safety? Food Safety is making a food safe to eat and free of disease causing agents such as: • Too many infectious agents • Toxic chemicals • Foreign objects

  3. What is Food Quality? Food Quality is making a food desirable to eat with regards to good taste, color, and texture; bad food quality can be judged by: • Bad color • Wrong texture • Smells bad

  4. Unacceptable Foods Poor Quality Unsafe bad color too many bacteria wrong texture toxic chemicals smells bad foreign objects

  5. Hazard • A biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control

  6. What are the Type of Food Hazards? • Biological: bacteria, viruses, parasites • Chemical: heavy metals, natural toxins, sanitizers, pesticides, antibiotics • Physical: bone, rocks, metal

  7. A. Biological Hazards • Microorganisms • Yeast • Mold • Bacteria • Viruses • Protozoa • Parasitic worms

  8. How Do Foods Become Contaminated?

  9. What do microorganisms need? • Food • Water • Proper temperature • Air, no air, minimal air

  10. Bacterial Hazards • Food infection and food intoxication • Sporeforming and nonsporeforming bacteria

  11. Sporeforming Bacteria (Pathogens) • Clostridium botulinum • Proteolytic • Nonproteolytic • Clostridium perfringens • Bacillus cereus

  12. Nonsporeforming Bacteria • Brucella abortis, B. suis • Campylobacter spp. • Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g., E. coli O157:H7) • Listeria monocytogenes • Salmonella spp. (e.g., S. typhimurium, S. enteriditis) • Shigella spp. (e.g., S. dysinteriae) • Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., coagulase positive S. aureus) • Streptococcus pyogenes • Vibrio spp. (e.g., V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus,) • Yersinia enterocolitica

  13. In meat and poultry: • Salmonella bacteria (poultry and eggs) • Trichinella spiralis parasite (pork) On fruits and vegetables: • E. coli bacteria (apple juice) • Cyclospora parasite (raspberries) • Hepatitis A virus (strawberries)

  14. Viral Hazards • Very small particles that cannot be seen with a light microscope • Do not need food, water or air to survive • Do not cause spoilage • Infect living cells and are species specific • Reproduce inside the host cell • Survive in human intestines, water or food for months • Transmission usually by fecal-oral route and related to poor personnel hygiene

  15. Control of Viruses • No Virus survives heating at 140°F (60oC) for 30 minutes • Inactivated by boiling at 212°F • Hand sanitizers/antiseptics ineffective • Important controls • No bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food • Proper handwashing • Not preparing food when ill

  16. Parasites in Foods • Parasites are organisms that need a host to survive • Thousands of kinds exist worldwide, but only about 100 types are known to infect people through food contamination • Two types of concern from food or water: • Parasitic worms [e.g., roundworms (nematodes), tapeworms (cestodes), flukes (trematodes)] • Protozoa • Role of fecal material in transmission of parasites

  17. Roundworms (nematodes) Anisakis simplex Ascaris lumbricoides Pseudoterranova dicepiens Trichinella spiralis Tapeworms (cestodes) Diphyllobothrium latum Taenia solium, T. saginata Flukes (trematodes) Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum Entamoeba histolytica Giardia lamblia Parasitic Protozoa and Worms

  18. Foodborne Illness

  19. Percentage of Foodborne Illness Attributable to Known Pathogens Mead et al., 1999

  20. What is a Foodborne Illness? Foodborne illnesses are caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. • Every person is at risk of foodborne illness. • May be serious for very young, very old, people with long term illness • Reaction may occur in a few hours or up to several days after exposure Symptoms • Abdominal cramps, headache, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), fever, death

  21. What is the Impact of Foodborne Illness? In the US (Centres for Disease Control andPrevention) annually: • 76 million cases of foodborne diseases • 325,000 hospitalization • 5,000 deaths In China (1994) Salmonella Outbreak : • estimated 224,000 persons

  22. Why is Foodborne Illness increasing in the US? Food: • Preference for “rare” meats • Increase shelf life of products which allow for bacterial growth • Increase consumption of imported ready-to-eat foods

  23. How can you prevent Biological Hazard to Foods? Prevention of microbes growing • Holding at low temperatures (<40oF) • Cooling from 140o-40oF quickly Cooking helps to kill microbes • >165oF(73o C) for poultry and eggs • >155oF (68o C) for ground beef • >160oF (71o C) for pork

  24. Food from Unapproved Source

  25. Food from Unapproved Source

  26. Food from Unapproved Source

  27. Unapproved Cheese Product

  28. B. Chemical Hazards in Food Chemical hazard: a toxic substance that is produced naturally added intentionally or un-intentionally • Naturally-occurring: • Natural toxins (aflatoxins) • Added intentionally: • Antibiotics, preservatives • Added non-intentionally: • Cleaning agents, Pesticide residues

  29. Intentionally Added Chemicals - Food Additives • Preservatives (e.g., nitrite and sulfiting agents) • Nutritional additives (e.g., niacin, vitamin A) • Color additives (e.g., FD&C Yellow No. 5)

  30. Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals • Agricultural chemicals • e.g., pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones • Toxic elements and compounds • e.g., lead, zinc, arsenic, mercury, cyanide • Secondary direct and indirect • e.g., lubricants, cleaning compounds, sanitizers, paint

  31. Mercury

  32. Polluting with HG

  33. MeHg kid

  34. C. Physical Hazards In Food • Physical hazard: a hard foreign object that can cause illness or injury Examples: plastic, bones, wood, glass, metal fragments • Poor handling procedures in the food flow

  35. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

  36. What is Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)? The purpose of HACCP is to help ensure the production of safe food • The goal of HACCP is to prevent and/or minimize risks associated with biological, chemical, and physical hazards to acceptable levels • It is based on PREVENTION rather than detection of hazards • Pioneered in the 1960’s: first used for the space program (Pillsbury & NASA)

  37. What are the Steps involved in HACCP? 1. Identify hazards 2. Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs) 3. Determine safety limits for CCPs 4. Monitor CCPs 5. Corrective action 6. Record data 7. Verify that the system is working

  38. Good Practices in Food Chain • Good Agricultural Practices (pesticide use) • Good Catering Practices (ensure food served is safe) • Good Hygiene Practices • Good Manufacturing Practices • Good Storage Practices • Good Transport Practices

  39. Shared responsibility

  40. Safe Eating …….

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