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Food Safety. Module 1. A man in Arkansas developed botulism (July, 1994) after eating stew that was cooked and then kept at room temperature for 3 days. He spent 49 days in the hospital – 42 of them on mechanical ventilation.
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Food Safety Module 1
A man in Arkansas developed botulism (July, 1994) after eating stew that was cooked and then kept at room temperature for 3 days. He spent 49 days in the hospital – 42 of them on mechanical ventilation.
January 2014 a Royal Caribbean cruise return to New Jersey. CDC boarded the ship on January 26th and forced the ship to head to homeport due to Norovirus. January 26th – 300 people infected January 27th – 600 people infected
One of the largest E. coli 0157:H7 outbreaks on record infected more than 1000 people in upstate New York at a county fair. The bacterium was found in infected well water. It killed a 79-year-old man and a 4-year-old girl, and caused 10 other children to undergo kidney dialysis.
An estimated 6 million oysters from Louisiana were bathed with the Norwalk virus (found in the human intestinal tract and feces) after ships with ill crewmembers dumped their sewage overboard. By the time the outbreak was recognized, an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 people had become ill.
As of July 23, 2015, at a church potluck meal in Ohio.77 Persons were infected with Botulism. It was caused by bad potatoes in potato salad. 29 of the cases were sent to different hospitals for more attention. The persons that made the potatoe salad reported of using a boiling water canner which does not kill all of the Botulism. It leaves the spores to contaminate the food in which makes the persons open to getting sick. Ashley’s Botulism
An outbreak of E. Coli caused by rare and medium-rare hamburger meat shipped by the Wolverine Packing Company in Detroit, Michigan took place during the March, April, and May months of 2014. The outbreak infected 12 people and hospitalized seven of them. The outbreak caused the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to recall 1.8 million pounds of ground beef that was shipped by the Wolverine Packing Company. The outbreak caused public safety departments to warn consumers about eating raw or undercooked beef or other meats. Nate Berry
Outbreak of Botulinum toxin Type A associated with bottled carrot juice A commercial beverage has been confirmed as the cause of a cluster of three botulism cases in Georgia. The three patients had onset of symptoms on Friday, September 8th, after consuming a common meal that included commercially produced carrot juice on Thursday, September 7th, 2006. Two bottles of juice were consumed. All three patients drank from bottle #1
Multiple States Investigating a Large Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 Infections, Sep 06 Public health officials in multiple states, with the assistance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are investigating a large outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infections. Thus far, 50 cases with isolates have been reported from CT (1), ID (3), IN (4), MI (3), OR (5), NM (2), UT (11), WI (20). Eight patients developed the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and one patient died. Most cases are recent: for those with known illness onset, the range of onset is 08/25/2006 to 09/03/2006. The outbreak is likely ongoing.
Multi- state Outbreak of E-coli 0157 Infections, Nov-Dec 2006 As of Wednesday, December 13, 2006, 71 persons have become ill with Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with eating contaminated lettuce at Taco Bell restaurants in the northeastern United States. Cases have been reported to CDC from five states: New Jersey (33), New York (22), Pennsylvania (13), Delaware (2) and South Carolina (1).
Raw chicken that was packaged at “three foster farms” places in california has salmonella this outbreak that did sickened 278 people in 18 states since march. you the consumer need to cook the chicken thoroughly and take other precautions in order to lessness the chance of illness.California health officials said no recall was planned, but reminded consumers that chicken must be cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees F. Kaitlyn G.
Most norovirus outbreaks occur when people infected with it come in contact with other people, spreading the infection. However, norovirus can be caused by food infected due to incorrectly cooked food, or food that came in contact with the virus, and are consumed by people. Norovirus is responsible for 50% if all food related illnesses in the U.S. Norovirus is able to infect during the whole year, but is most common in the winter. Most norovirus outbreaks are in leafy greens, fresh fruits, and shellfish, even though any food can be contaminated. Jordan H.
More than 140 outbreaks of the virus have been caused by the “GII 4 Sydney” strain.This virus makes you very sick when contracted. The elderly and children are the most likely to contract it first. Some of the symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting. The virus spreads faster in schools and hospitals with the kids and sick people. Reported in 2013, the U.S. was accountable for about 60% of the world's Norwalk outbreaks. The strain spreads very rapidly and a outbreak happened from December 22, 2012 to January 3, 2013. This happened during a voyage when 204 passengers and 16 crew members developed the virus. • Cade’s Norwalk virus
Part 1 Hazards of Food Safety
Foodborne Illness U.S. Yearly Statistics • 76 million cases of foodborne illness • 80% of foodborne illness cases originate at restaurants and other food service establishments. • $5 to $6 billion in direct medical expenses and loss of productivity An illness transmitted to humans by food.
Common Symptoms of Foodborne Illness Inflammation of the GI tract Nausea Abdominal cramps Diarrhea Vomiting
Individuals at Greatest Risk • Infants and young children • Pregnant women • Elderly • Individuals with compromised immune systems
Types of Foodborne Illness • An illness resulting from ingestion of food containing large numbers of living bacteria or other microorganisms. • Accounts for ~80% of all foodborne illnesses. • Ingested microorganisms grow in the host’s intestines and cause an infection. Foodborne Infection
Types of Foodborne Illness • An illness resulting from ingestion of food containing a toxin. • Accounts for ~20% of foodborne illnesses. • Toxins produced by bacteria growing on the food or by a chemical contaminant. • Most common food intoxicants come from bacteria. Foodborne Intoxication
Biological Microorganisms Bacteria Molds Viruses Animal parasites Natural toxins Chemical Agricultural Industrial Physical Foreign objects in food Hazards to Food Safety
Ten Least Wanted Foodborne Pathogens The U.S. Public Health Service has identified the following microorganisms as being the biggest culprits involved in foodborne illnesses, either because of the severity of the resulting sickness or the number of cases of illness they cause. 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6.
7. 8. 9. 10. For more information on these and other foodborne pathogens, check out the “Bad Bug Book” on the World Wide Web at: http//vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/intro.html.
Environmental Factors that Foster Bacterial Growth Water Temperature The most important factor governing the microbial contamination of food. Bacteria cannot survive without water. The temperature danger zone (shown on the next slide) allows rapid bacterial growth. Oxygen Time Because bacteria grow exponentially, they can drastically increase in numbers in a relatively short amount of time. Bacteria vary in their need for oxygen. For example, anaerobic bacteria can only survive in the absence of oxygen, an environment found in sealed cans. pH Bacteria are more likely to grow in alkaline and low-acid foods than in high-acid foods like vinegar or lemon juice.
250°F Canning for low-acid foods (vegetables, meat, poultry) 240°F Canning for high-acid foods (fruits, tomatoes, pickles) 212°F Cooking temperatures destroy most bacteria 165°F Warm temperatures prevent growth, but some bacteria survive 140°F TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE Rapid growth of bacteria and production of toxins 41°F Refrigeration; slow growth of some bacteria 32°F Freezing stops growth, but bacteria survive 0°F
Part 2 Safeguarding the Food Supply
Food Safety • A judgment of the acceptability of the risk involved in eating a food. • If the risk is relatively low, a food substance may be considered safe. • The food supply in the United States is probably the safest in the world. • Why? Federal and state regulatory standards are set high and are well enforced.
Enforces laws governing safety of domestic and imported meat and poultry products. FSIS USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Government Agencies in Charge of Food Safety FDA Food and Drug Administration Enforces laws governing safety of domestic and imported food, except meat and poultry. CSREES Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service Develops research and education programs on food safety for farmers and consumers. Federal Food Safety CDC The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ARS USDA Agricultural Research Service Monitors outbreaks of foodborne diseases, investigates their causes, and determines proper preventative measures. Conducts research to extend knowledge of various agricultural practices, including those involving animal and crop safety. EPA Environmental Protection Agency Regulates public drinking water and approves the use of pesticides and other chemicals used in the environment.
HACCP: Stopping a problem before it starts • HACCP: Hazard Analysis AND Critical Control Points • A food safety system that allows government and industry to identify possible sites of food contamination and correct problems before they occur. • http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/haccp.html
Buy from reputable dealers and grocers who keep their selling areas and facilities clean and sanitary, and keep food at the appropriate temperature. Purchase only pasteurized milk and cheese (check the label). Don’t buy canned goods with dents or bulges. Don’t taste or use food that has a foul odor or spurts liquid when the can is opened. Don’t select torn, crushed, or open food packages. Avoid buying packages that are above the frost line in the store’s freezer. If the package cover is transparent, look for frost or ice crystals, signs that the product has been stored for a long time, or thawed and refrozen. Critical Control Points Purchasing
Wash hands and surfaces often You can’t see, taste, or smell them. They’re sneaky little critters, and they can spread throughout the kitchen and get onto cutting boards, utensils, sponges, countertops, and food. They’re foodborne bacteria – and if eaten, they can cause foodborne illness. Critical Control Points Preparation
The Big3 Use these tips to keep your hands, surfaces, and utensils squeaky clean! Splish, Splash Wash hands, utensils, and surfaces in hot, soapy water before and after food preparation and especially after preparing raw meat, poultry, eggs, or seafood. Also, remember to wash your hands after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or handling pets. All A Board Cutting boards (including plastic, non-porous, acrylic, and wooden boards) should be run through the dishwasher or washed in hot, soapy water after each use. Discard boards that are excessively worn. Towel Toss Consider using paper towels to clean up kitchen surfaces. When done, throw away the towel. If you use cloth towels, wash them often in the hot cycle of your washing machine.
BAC! Attack How long should you wash your hands to send bacteria down the drain? a. 5 seconds b. 10 seconds c. 15 seconds d. 20 seconds
BAC! Attack How long should you wash your hands to send bacteria down the drain? a. 5 seconds b. 10 seconds c. 15 seconds d. 20 seconds
Fruit & Veggie Recipe for Safety Here’s a simple formula for keeping fruits and veggies clean. Prep the Kitchen– Before preparing fruits and vegetables, wash your hands and clean your cutting board and utensils with hot, soapy water. Add Water– To remove any lingering dirt, thoroughly wash fresh produce under running water. Scrub Thoroughly– Use a vegetable brush to scrub fruits and vegetables that have firm surfaces, such as potatoes, carrots, etc. Cut Accordingly– Cut away damaged or bruised areas on produce. Bacteria can thrive in theses places.
Defrost food in the refrigerator. This is the safest method for all foods. Short on time? Thaw meat and poultry in airtight packaging in cold water. Change the water every 30 minutes, so the food continues to thaw. Defrost food in the microwave only if it will be cooked immediately. You can thaw food as part of the cooking process, but make sure food reaches its safe internal temperature. Avoid keeping foods in the Danger Zone (40-140°F). Don’t defrost food in hot water. Don’t thaw food on the counter. Food that’s left out at room temperature longer than 2 hours is not within a safe temperature range and may not be safe to eat. The Big ‘Thaw’ Foods must remain at a safe temperature while thawing. Defrosting DON’Ts Defrosting DOs
Critical Control Points Preparation Prevent Cross-Contamination! • Safely Separate: Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from other food in your grocery shopping cart and in your refrigerator. • Take Two: To prevent juices from raw meat, poultry, or seafood from dripping onto other foods in the refrigerator, place these raw food in sealed containers or plastic bags. • Marinating Mandate: Sauce that is used to marinate raw meat, poultry, or seafood should not be used on cooked foods, unless it is boiled before applying. • Lather Up: Always wash hands, cutting boards, dishes, and utensils with hot, soapy water after they come in contact with raw meat, poultry, and seafood. • Take Two: If possible, use one cutting board for fresh produce and use a separate one for raw meat, poultry, and seafood. • Clean Your Plate: Never place cooked food back on the same plate or cutting board that previously held raw food.
Cook foods to the appropriate minimum internal temperature (see next slide). Always use a thermometer to ensure that the product has reached the correct internal temperature. Color is not always a good guide. When microwaving foods, rotate the dish and stir its contents several times to ensure even cooking. Follow recommended standing times, then check meat, poultry, and seafood products with a thermometer to make sure they have reached the correct internal temperature. Critical Control Points Preparation: Heating
Boiling point of water; all microorganisms killed within varying lengths of time. 212°F Poultry (dark meat) 180°F Poultry (light meat) 170°F Ground poultry 165°F Ground beef , fresh pork (all types), eggs 160°F Beef, veal, lamb, roasts, steaks, chops (medium rare) 145°F Safe Cooking Temperatures
Safe Cooking Quiz • Fill in the blank: Bacteria in food can be destroyed by thorough ___________. • What’s the best way to make sure meat and poultry are cooked thoroughly? • Feel it with your fingers. • Judge it by its color. • Use a food thermometer. • Taste it. • After you’re done checking the temperature of a food, what should you do with the food thermometer before using it again? • Wipe it off with a paper towel. • Place it in another food item and check its temperature. • Wash the food thermometer in hot, soapy water.
Safe Cooking Quiz • Fill in the blank: Bacteria in food can be destroyed by thorough ___________. • What’s the best way to make sure meat and poultry are cooked thoroughly? • Feel it with your fingers. • Judge it by its color. • Use a food thermometer. • Taste it. • After you’re done checking the temperature of a food, what should you do with the food thermometer before using it again? • Wipe it off with a paper towel. • Place it in another food item and check its temperature. • Wash the food thermometer in hot, soapy water. cooking
Keep hot foods at 140°F (60°C) or higher, and cold foods at 41°F (5°C) or lower. Do not keep leftovers at room temperature for more than two hours. Refrigerate as quickly as possible. Date leftovers so that they can be used within a safe time – generally, 3 to 5 days in the refrigerator. Critical Control Points Preparation: Holding/Serving WHEN IN DOUBT, THROW IT OUT!
When serving cold food at a buffet, picnic, or barbecue, keep these “chilling” tips in mind. • Cold foods should be kept at 41°F or colder. • Keep all perishable foods chilled right up until serving time. • Place containers of cold food on ice for serving to make sure they stay cold. • It’s particularly important to keep custards, cream pies, and cakes with whipped-cream or cream-cheese frostings refrigerated. Don’t serve them if refrigeration is not possible. • When serving up hot food buffet-style, remember… • On a buffet table, hot foods should be kept at 140°F or higher. Keep food hot with chafing dishes, crock pots, and warming trays. • When bringing hot soup, chili, or crab dip to an outdoor party… • Keep it all piping hot before serving. Before the party, place these foods in insulated thermal containers. Keep containers closed until party time.
Critical Control Points Preparation: Cooling Always use shallow containers to ensure that foods are cooled to below 41°F within 4 hours. Do not use large deep containers for cooling, even for rapid cooling.
Critical Control Points Storage • Keep eggs in their original carton and store them in the refrigerator itself, not the door, where the temperature is warmer. • Read label directions for storing other foods; for example mayonnaise and ketchup need to be refrigerated after they have been opened. • Store potatoes and onions in a cool dark place. Don’t store them under the sink in case of leakage from the pipes. Keep them away from household cleaning products and other chemicals.
Critical Control Points Storage • If raw meat, poultry products, or fresh seafood will be used within 2 days, store them in the coldest part of the refrigerator. Be sure to wrap them tightly so that raw juices can’t leak out and contaminate other food. • If raw meat, poultry, and seafood will not be used in 2 days, store them in the freezer, which should have a temperature of 0°F.
The Chill Factor – Refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared foods, and leftovers within 2 hours or less. Marinate foods in the refrigerator. • The Thaw Law – Never defrost at room temperature. Thaw food in the refrigerator, in cold water, or in the microwave if you’ll be cooking it immediately. • Divide and Conquer – Separate large amounts of leftovers into small, shallow containers for quicker cooling in the refrigerator. • Avoid the Pack Attack – Don’t over-stuff the refrigerator. Cold air must circulate to keep food safe. • ‘Fridge Messages of the Day • Wipe up spills immediately. • Clean refrigerator surfaces with hot, soapy water. • Once a week, throw out perishable foods that should no longer be eaten.
Safe Storage Temperatures Keep hot foods above 140°F 140°F DANGER ZONE: Do not store foods within this temperature range for more than 2 hours; bacteria grow quickly. 65°F Dry foods can safely be stored at 65°F 41°F Refrigerate foods below 41°F 32°F Freeze foods below 32°F