IVL activities in support of international air pollution policies John Munthe IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute
Presentation outline • Short IVL presentation • The LRTAP convention • Examples of national reporting performed by IVL:- Emissions inventories and projections- Monitoring (EMEP)- Critical Loads - NFC • Examples of other research and monitoring activities in support of international air pollution policies:The ASTA and SCARP programmes, transport research.
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute • IVL is an independent research body focused on the development of solutions to environmental problems on behalf of the business sector and society. • IVL is a limited company owned by the Foundation for the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (SIVL). • Government and industry are represented with an equal number of board members in the SIVL Board and in the IVL Company Board. • IVL has around 170 employees.
The Convention on long range transboundary air pollution (CLRTAP) • Convention signed in 1979 mainly as a result of research leading to the discovery of transboundary air pollution as a main cause of acidification in Scandinavia • The aim of the Convention is to limit long-range transboundary air pollution. Parties develop policies and strategies to combat the discharge of air pollutants through exchanges of information, consultation, research and monitoring • The Convention has been extended by eight protocols that identify specific measures to be taken by Parties to cut their emissions of air pollutants.
The CLRTAP protocols • The 1984 – Long term financing of EMEP (monitoring, modelling, data collection and assessment) • The 1985 – Reduction of sulphur emissions by 30% • The 1988 – Control of Nitrogen oxides • The 1991 – Volatile Organic Compounds • The 1994 – Futher reduction of sulphur emissions • The 1998 – Heavy metals • The 1998 - Persistent Organic Pollutants • The 1999 – Acidification, eutrophication and ozone
Examples of IVL contributions to CLRTAP Emission inventories Monitoring data Critical loads GAINS modelling
Swedish Methodology for Environmental Data - The SMED Consortium • Was established in 2000. • Consists of four independent organizations. • Four programme areas: Air, Water, Waste, Hazardous Substances. • Has performed the National Greenhouse Gas and Air Emission Inventories since 2000. • Since 2006, a long-term framework agreement with the Swedish EPA to compile data and documentation for national and international environmental reporting. • Has an overall quality system in addition to separate systems for each organization, and specific quality manuals for the programme areas.
SMEDSwedish Methodology for Environmental Data SMHISwedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute IVLSwedish Environmental Research Institute SCBStatistics Sweden SLUSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences Tools for QC, geographical distribution, normal year correction Industrial processes, Solvent and other product use Energy, Agriculture, Waste Land use, land use change and forestry Main responsibilities, Air
Emissions Activity data Emission factors Emission factors Methodology Emissions Activity data Emission factors Activity data Activity data Emission factors Activity data Data sources
Annual Process of Air Inventory Preparation • Data collection • Data processing • Compilation (reporting tables, inventory reports) SMED internal audit • Submission to the Swedish EPA • National independent review, corrections, suggestions for improvements • Swedish EPA submits to the Ministry of Environment • MoE submits to Conventions and EU • International review, suggestions for improvements Improvements
Monitoring of air pollution for EMEP • IVL is responsible for most of the EMEP monitoring in Sweden, under contract to the Swedish EPA. • Rural background measurements are made at eight monitoring stations across the country. • The monitoring network measures sulphur and nitrogen compounds, mercury and other heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in air and precipitation. • Ozone and particles are measured in air and base cations in precipitation. • Through IVL, Sweden has unbroken air quality data for some parameters for more than 30 years. • Also monitoring activites for reporting to ICP Forest, ICP Integrated Monitoring
Regional throughfall monitoring network Wet deposition Dry deposition open field air concentration soil effects ground water
Critical loads • Sweden and IVL were closely involved in the development of the critical loads concepts 20 years ago. • The Swedish National Focal Centre for critical loads modelling and mapping activities is based at IVL. • It is responsible for co-ordinating the critical loads mapping activities in Sweden and compiling national critical loads datasets and maps from data supplied by Swedish experts. • Sweden and IVL have taken strong action in developing critical loads to include dynamic aspects.
Research in support of the Convention and other international initiatives • The ASTA programme -International and National Abatement Strategies for Transboundary Air Pollution1999 – 2002 (IVL in cooperation with several Swedish Universities) • SCARP – Swedish Clean Air Research Programme, 2006-2009 (2010 - 2012) (IVL in cooperation with several Swedish Universities)
Main research topics in SCARP (and ASTA) • Dynamic modelling of acidification and recovery in forest soils and lakes – development of new concepts for critical loads for acidification • Nitrogen impacts on plant species diversity – development of new concepts for critical loads for nitrogen deposition. • Particles – mechanisms for formation of secondary particles – implementation of process descriptions ion atmospheric models • Ozone effects on vegetation – development and aplication of flux based effect criteria (ASTA)
Main research topics in SCARP (and ASTA) • Development of national version of Integrated assessment mode GAINS – also cooperation with Russia, Ukraine and Belarus • Economic valuation of air pollution impacts • Non technical measures (behavioural changes) • Human health impacts of air pollution - health effects related to short- and long term exposure to air pollution with emphasis on exposure to particles from road traffic, local wood burning and long range transport (SCARP)
Key activities within the transport sector • Implementation and evaluation of road transport emission models (European models ARTEMIS, Handbook of Emissions Factors, COPERT) • Development of user-friendly tools to assess environmental and climate impact from transports • Close collaboration with NTM – Network for Transport and the Environment (http://www.ntm.a.se/) • Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) • Real-world (on-road and onboard) emission measurements
On-Road Emission Measurements by Optical Remote Sensing NO, HC, PM, CO2 FEAT (Fuel Efficiency Automobile Test)
40 15* MP-xylene Nonane Etylbenzene O-xylene Toluene Butylacetate Octane Benzene 30 700* 60* 150* 3 15* µg/m 20 80* 10 0 Älmhult Göteborg Karlstad Östersund Lycksele Stockholm * 1000 inhabitants Urban monitoring and dispersion modelling Diffusive samplers for mapping air pollutant concentrations VOC in Swedish cities
Other activities at IVL.... • Assessment of Best available technology and technology standards • Cost efficiency och control measures • Policy evaluation including economic instruments • Expert advice on emissions, dispersion and impacts of Hg, POPs • Expert advice on urban air quality • Shipping emissions
More information... • www.ivl.se • www.scarp.se • firstname.lastname@example.org