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Chronic Disorders

Chronic Disorders

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Chronic Disorders

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  1. Chronic Disorders Asthma Diabetes Seizure Disorder

  2. Asthma • #1 chronic disease of school-aged children • Affects 1-2 students in an average classroom • The leading cause of school absences due to chronic illness. (80 million school days lost each year.) • Mortality rates have increased over 72% since 1970.

  3. Asthma • An inflammatory lung disease characterized by recurrent breathing problems • The muscles that surround the airways can become tight, producing muscle spasms. • The inner lining of the airways may swell. • There can be an increase in mucous production and/or inflammation (within the trachea, bronchi, and/or the lungs).

  4. Asthma Triggers • Allergens (animal dander, dust, mites, molds, pollens, foods-especially seafood & peanuts, etc.) • Lung irritants (tobacco smoke, leaf burning smoke, perfume, chalk, dust, etc.) • Weather changes • Infections (colds, sinus infections, etc.) • Exercise and overexertion • Excitement

  5. Early Warning Signs of an Asthma Attack • Coughing with no cold • Wheezing (however light), especially upon exhaling • Fast/irregular breathing • Upset stomach • Tickly throat • Anxiousness

  6. Severe Symptoms of Asthma • Student stops wheezing, especially with other symptoms. • Increased anxiety • Increased effort to breathe • Worsening of any early warning signs

  7. Immediate Treatment • Treatment should match the severity of the symptoms. • Teacher needs to remain calm! • Calm child/relaxation helps • Administer (warm) fluids if possible • Remove from the area/stop activity • Get school nurse/appointed medical personnel. FOLLOW SCHOOL POLICY! • Teacher should make medications available (as directed by school policy), note dosage, time of administration, and any side effects.

  8. Diabetes • A chronic illness in which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, and/or when insulin cell receptors are defective, an excess of sugar is carried throughout the blood stream.

  9. Diabetes – Symptoms • Initial symptoms generally include weight loss, visual disorders, increased thirst/hunger, frequent urination, fatigue, irritability, and nausea. • If left untreated over time, this excess in sugar levels can cause permanent visual problems, organ damage (especially to the kidneys), cardiovascular disorders, and possible death.

  10. Type I Diabetes • Also known as juvenile diabetes • Requires daily insulin injections and sometimes oral medication. • Caused by recessive gene that may become activated after an illness, such as strep or mono, especially during a growth spurt (age 5-6, 10-11, etc.).

  11. Type I Diabetes • Considered an autoimmune disorder whereby the white blood cells attack the pancreas (beta cells) that normally produce insulin. The beta cells will become completely destroyed generally within a year, requiring insulin shots/pump/inhaler.

  12. Type II Diabetes • Also known as adult onset diabetes • Generally treated with diet, exercise, and oral medications. • Most experts consider it preventable.

  13. Diabetes • Normal blood sugar levels average from 80-120. • A level of up to 140 is generally considered acceptable for an insulin dependent diabetic.

  14. Diabetes – First Aid • Insulin shock – Too much insulin (giving a shot with too much insulin; lack of activity; not eating for a long period of time; etc.) • Also known as low blood sugar (blood sugar levels less than 80). • Symptoms: irritability (cry, belligerent, etc.), hungry (especially a craving for sweets), perspire excessively, trembling, dizzy/disoriented/pale, pulse is generally full and normal. • This condition is potentially life threatening.

  15. Diabetes – First Aid • First Aid: • Follow school policy for treating child. • The policy will most likely involve giving the person a carbohydrate such as a sugar cube, soda, candy, raisins, prescribed candy. • Symptoms should subside within 10-15 minutes.

  16. Diabetes – First Aid • Diabetic Coma – too little insulin (failure to take insulin shot; not having enough insulin with shot; over-activity; illness; improper diet of sugars, alcohol, etc.) • High blood sugar – blood sugar levels above 240. Levels exceeding 300 can cause kidney and cardiovascular damage.

  17. Diabetes – First Aid • Symptoms: pulse weak and rapid, thirsty, frequent urination, flushed face, vomiting/nausea, labored breathing, craving for sweets, irritable • This condition is not immediately life threatening but can result in kidney damage, eye damage, nerve damage, heart damage, etc., over an extended period of time (years).

  18. Diabetes – First Aid • First Aid: • Follow school policy for treating the child. • The policy should involve the following: making sure that the student rests; maintaining body temperature; letting the student (or medical staff) administer an insulin shot; seeking medical attention.

  19. Diabetes • Teachers should also: • Note when insulin was administered (if applicable). • Note the last time the student ate/activity level. • Become familiar with the use of a glucose meter.