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Ch. 3.1 Solids, Liquids, Gases PowerPoint Presentation
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Ch. 3.1 Solids, Liquids, Gases

Ch. 3.1 Solids, Liquids, Gases

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Ch. 3.1 Solids, Liquids, Gases

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  1. Ch. 3.1 Solids, Liquids, Gases

  2. Kinetic Theory • All particles of matter are in constant motion • Explains the behavior of solids and liquids • Kinetic Energy- an objects energy due to its motion

  3. States of Matter • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma

  4. Solids: • Matter that has • Definite shape • Definite volume • Orderly arrangement of atomic particles. Close together

  5. Behavior of Solids • Particles vibrate in fixed locations • Repetitive, back in forth motion • Keeps solids constant shape and volume

  6. Liquids: • Matter that has • Definite volume • NO definite shape • Arrangement of particles at atomic level is further apart than solids

  7. Behavior of Liquids • Particles can flow to new locations • No definite shape • Force of attraction keeps particles close together • Constant volume

  8. Gases: • Matter that has no • Definite shape • Definite volume • Takes the size and shape of its container

  9. Behavior of Gases • Particles are in constant motion • Become any size or shape • Kinetic Theory of Gases • Particles are in constant, random motion • Motion of 1 particle is unaffected by the motion of another, unless they collide • Forces of attraction among particles in a gas can be ignored under ordinary conditions

  10. Plasma: • Gas containing • Nuclei • Electrons • Exists in extremely hot environments • Sun • Stars

  11. Phase Changes Ch. 3.3

  12. Phase Changes • Reversible physical changes • 1 state of matter changes into another • 6 Phases • Melting / freezing • vaporization / condensation • Sublimation / deposition

  13. Phase Change and Temperature Energy • Temp of the substances does NOT change during a phase change • Energy is either absorbed or released during a phase change

  14. Energy Endothermic Exothermic • Absorbs energy from surroundings • Become cold • Ex: Evaporation of water • Releases energy into surroundings • Produce heat • Ex: Candle flame

  15. Heat of Fusion • Heat needed to melt • Varies for every substance

  16. Phase Changes Melting Freezing • Molecules become less orderly • Gain energy, vibrate more quickly to break away from fixed position • Endothermic • Molecules become more orderly • Kinetic energy decreases, decreasing movement until a fixed arrangement is met • Exothermic

  17. Phase Changes: Vaporization Evaporation • Liquid to gas • Endothermic • Heat of Vaporization- amount of heat needed • Occurs on the surface & and temps BELOW boiling point • Vapor Pressure • the pressure of the vapor resulting from evaporation of a liquid above a sample of the liquid in a closed container Boiling • Occurs below the surface at BOLING point

  18. Phase Changes: Condensation • Gas to liquid • Exothermic

  19. Phase Changes Sublimation Deposition • Solid to gas, skipping liquid • Endothermic • Ex: Dry ice • Gas to solid, skipping liquid • Exothermic