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  1. Honors Final Exam Review

  2. 1. Know the correct order of the scientific method. Ask a question Gather information Form hypothesis Perform experiment Observe experiment Record data Report conclusion

  3. 2. What are the two most important theories studied in biology? In biology, we mainly study the cell theory and the theory of evolution.

  4. 3. Know the 3 principles of the cell theory. • All living things are composed of one or more cells. • Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms. • Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their genetic material on to their daughter cells.

  5. 4. Know the 8 characteristics of living things. • Made of more than one cells • Responds to stimuli • Maintains homeostasis • Reproduces • Grows and develops • Displays organization • Requires energy • Adapts and evolves over time

  6. 5. Compare and contrast dependent variables and independent variables. • Independent variable- what changes in the experiment, what is being tested • Dependent variable- what measures the change

  7. 6. Know the 4 types of macromolecules. What are some characteristics of each? What are some examples of each? • Lipids-made of fatty acids, found in cell membranes • Cholesterol, phospholipids • Carbohydrates- simple and complex sugars, used for energy storage • Glucose, sucrose • Proteins- made of amino acids, contains nitrogen, produced by RNA in ribosomes • Carboxl groups, amino groups • Nucleic acids- made of nucleotides • DNA, RNA, ATP

  8. 7. What is activation energy? Activation energy- energy needed to initiate a chemical reaction, speeds up chemical reactions

  9. 8. What is an enzyme and how does it affect chemical reactions? Enzyme- catalyst that lowers the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction, re-used over and over again

  10. 9. What is a monomer? Monomers are small molecules linked together and used to build larger molecules. ex. Amino acids are linked together to build proteins.

  11. 10. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. • Prokaryotic cells • No membrane bound nucleus • Lacks membrane bound organelles • Ex. Bacteria cells • Eukaryotic cells • Nucleus • Various specialized organelles with different functions • Ex. Skin cells, nerve cells

  12. 11. Compare and contrast animal cells and plant cells. • Plant cells have the following: • Cell walls made of cellulose • Larger single vacuole to store water and food • Chloroplasts for absorption of sunlight • Animal cells lack these

  13. 12. Know the major organelles of eukaryotic cells. Structures and functions

  14. 13. What is diffusion? Diffusion- movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration

  15. 14. Describe the 3 types of solutions in which cells are found. • Isotonic solution- solution that has the same concentration of water and solute, cell stays the same • Hypertonic solution- solution with a higher concentration of solute on the outside of the cell, causes the cell to shrivel • Hypotonic solution- solution with a lower concentration on the outside of the cell, causes the cell to swell

  16. 15. Which of those three would be the most ideal for cells to be placed in? Isotonic

  17. 16. Know the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Reactants Products Reactants Products C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ -----> 6CO₂ + 6H₂O

  18. 17. What is mitosis? Mitosis- the division of a cell’s nucleus and nuclear material

  19. 18. What are the 4 phases of mitosis in order from start to finish? List some of the occurrences of each phase. Prophase • Nuclear membrane breaks up and disintegrates • Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes • Spindle fibers form and centrioles move to opposite “poles” of the cell Metaphase • Chromosomes are brought to the equator of the cell by spindle fibers

  20. Anaphase • Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles by spindle fibers • Telophase • Nuclear membrane starts to reform around the two new nuclei • Chromosomes relax/unwind • Cleavage furrow starts to form ending mitosis

  21. 19. Be able to identify diagrams of each phase. Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

  22. 20. What is the outcome of mitosis? Two identical diploid daughter cells

  23. 21. Compare somatic cells with sex cells. • Somatic cells are body cells and diploid. • Sex cells are gametes and haploid

  24. 22. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. • Mitosis- occurs when making new somatic cells, 2 identical daughter cells in outcome • Meiosis- occurs when making sex cells, 4 different haploid cells in outcome

  25. 23. How many divisions occur in meiosis? 2 divisions- meiosis I and meiosis II

  26. 24. Know the phases of meiosis I and II in order and what occurs in each. • Prophase I • Chromosomes condense • Centrioles and spindle fibers start to form and move toward the poles • Homologous chromosomes pair up in process called synapsis • Crossing over occurs- exchanging of segments between the chromosome pairs • Metaphase I • Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up on the equatorial plate • Spindle fibers attach to centromere of each pair

  27. Anaphase I • Homologous chromosome pairs separate to opposite poles of cell • Telophase I • Homologous chromosomes reach each opposite pole • Sister chromatids are not identical in each cell because of crossing over • Spindle fibers break down, nucleus forms back • The 2 cells divide

  28. Prophase II • Chromosomes condense • Spindle fibers form and grab each pair of sister chromatids • Metaphase II • Chromosomes line up in the middle of cell • Anaphase II • Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite pole • Telophase II • Four nuclei form around chromosomes • Spindle fibers break down • 4 cells divide

  29. 25. What is the final result of meiosis? 4 different haploid daughter cells

  30. 26. What is fertilization? Fertilization-process where one haploid gamete combines with another haploid gamete to form one diploid cell

  31. 27. Compare and contrast homozygous and heterozygous genotypes. • Homozygous • Same alleles in pair • Purebred • Ex. AA or rr • Heterozygous • Different alleles in pair • Hybrid • Ex. Yy or Bb

  32. 28. What is another name for a homozygous individual? Heterozygous? Homozygous- purebred Heterozygous- hybrid

  33. 29. Be able to cross various monohybrid crosses to determine the possible offspring. Y y YY Yy Y y Yy yy

  34. 30. What are alleles? Allele- alternative form of a single gene passed down ex. Pod Color- yellow or green

  35. 31. What are the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of a heterozygous monohybrid cross? Phenotypic ratio- 3:1 Genotypic ratio- 1:2:1

  36. 32. What type of inheritance patterns are found in blood typing? Be able to identify examples of blood types when looking at genotypes. Blood typing involves codominance, multiple alleles, and simple dominance A- IᴬIᴬ or Iᴬi B- IᴮIᴮ or Iᴮi AB- IᴬIᴮ O- ii

  37. 33. What is nondisjunction? What are some disorders caused by nondisjunction? Nondisjunction is when chromosomes do not separate correctly and some cells have the wrong number of chromosomes after meiosis Disorders caused by nondisjunction would include Downs syndrome, Edward’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, Klinfelters …

  38. 34. What is the central dogma of biology? DNA  RNA  protein synthesis DNA codes for RNA which makes proteins which expresses DNA

  39. 35. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA nucleotides. • DNA • Deoxyribose sugar • Bases- thymine, adenine, cytosine, guanine • Double stranded • RNA • Ribose sugar • Bases- uracil, adenine, cytosine, guanine • Single stranded

  40. 36. Know the processes of protein synthesis. What are the monomers that make up proteins? What are the roles of each of the RNA strands in protein synthesis? Transcription- mRNA travels to nucleus and codes DNA into codons(3 bases) and takes it back to ribosomes Translation- tRNA uses codons to pair anti-codons on amino acids. They travel around cytoplasm picking up AAs and assemble proteins.

  41. 37. Know the principles of natural selection. • Variation- individuals in a population will show differences from one another • Heritability- the variations are passed down to offspring • Overpopulation- populations will produce more offspring that will survive • Reproductive advantage- some variations allow organisms to reproduce more offspring than other variations

  42. 38. What are the three types of adaptations we discussed in class? Give an example of each. • Camouflage- adaptation that allows them to blend in with their environment, ex. Peppered moth and bark to hide from predators • Mimicry- one species evolves to resemble another species, ex. Monarch and viceroy butterflies • Antimicrobial resistance- certain species of bacteria are now found to be resistant to medicines such as penicillin

  43. 39. Know how to write a scientific name. What language is used in writing scientific names? What two levels of taxonomy are used in writing scientific names? Latin is used in binomial nomenclature. Scientific names use the genus and species of an organism. Genus species Homosapiens Homo sapiens

  44. 40. Know the levels of taxonomy in order from least exclusive to most exclusive. • Domain- broadest of all taxa categories, contains one or more kingdoms • Kingdom- consists of related phyla or divisions • Phylum/Division(plants and bacteria)- contains related classes • Class- contains related orders • Order- contains related families • Family-consists of similar related genera • Genus- group of species that are closely related and share a common ancestor • Species- most exclusive, each different organism has its own species name

  45. 41. What are the three domains of taxonomy? What kingdoms are found in each? • Bacteria- Eubacteria • Archaea- Archaebacteria • Eukarya- Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Fungi

  46. 42. What is the 10% rule? Only 10% of the energy is available to transfer to the next trophic level.

  47. 43. What are the main tropic levels when looking at food chains and energy pyramids? What is the purpose of the arrows? How does the energy flow? Producer  Primary consumer  Secondary consumer  Tertiary consumer The arrows show the direction of the energy flow from producers to consumers.

  48. 44. Compare and contrast habitat and niche. • Habitat- where an organism lives • Niche- the role or job an organism has in its environment

  49. 45. Compare and contrast autotroph and heterotroph. • Autotrophs- make their own food by using energy from the sun or inorganic compounds • Heterotroph- need to eat or consume their food for energy