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Land Use and Soil Pollution

Land Use and Soil Pollution

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Land Use and Soil Pollution

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  1. Land Use and Soil Pollution Morgan Fagan

  2. Agriculture • Industrialized • Uses machines • Chemical Fertilizers • Chemical Pesticides • Focus on maximum yield • Use of GMOs • http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/what-is-genetic-engineering-definition-benefits-issues.html#lesson • Monoculture • Plantations

  3. Agriculture • Sustenance • Increased biodiversity • No pesticides • No chemical additives • Natural fertilizers • Integrated Pest Management • Beneficial insects • Mums • Crop Rotation

  4. Agriculture • Types • Alley cropping • Agroforestry • Organic Farming

  5. Agriculture • 19.5% of U.S land is used for Agriculture • 442 million acres • Green Revolution • http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/what-is-the-green-revolution-definition-benefits-and-issues.html#lesson

  6. Forestry • Ecological Services • Providing wildlife habitats • Carbon sinks • Affecting local climate patterns • Purifying air and water • Reducing soil erosion as they serve as a watershed, absorbing and releasing controlled amounts of water • Providing energy and nutrient cycling

  7. Forestry • Types • Old growth forest • Plantations • Human impact • Converting forests for commercial use • Habitat fragmentation

  8. Forestry • Harvesting Trees • Clear cutting • Shelterwood • Even aged cutting • Uneven aged cutting • Selective cutting

  9. Forestry • Forests cover about 1/3 of all land surface world wide • 80% of all forest are closed canopies • 20% are open canopy • 70% of forests are located in North America, the Russian Federation, and South America • The U.S is the largest area of timbering (employs 150,000 people and represents a $7 billion per year industry!) • Teddy Roosevelt established the forest services in 1905

  10. Rangeland • http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/rangelands-uses-and-degradation.html#lesson

  11. Urban Sprawl • The movement of people from rural areas to urban areas • Reasons for Urbanization • Access to jobs • Higher standards of living • Easier access to health care • Mechanization of agriculture • Access to education

  12. Urban Sprawl • Pros • Uses less land • Better sanitation systems • High tax revenues • Decrease reliance on fossil fuels

  13. Urban Sprawl • Cons • Concentrated source of pollutants • More waste • Increased crime rates • Higher strain on social services

  14. Impacts on Soil • Erosion • Increased erosion leads to loss of top soil, nutrients, and heavy, toxic elements • Prevented in farming by no till or low till • Covered soil does not erode as quickly • Sediment pollution

  15. Impacts on Soil • Tree Removal • Increases runoff • Decreases ground water • Increases erosion

  16. Impacts on Soil • Urbanized land • Loss of habitats • Decreased amount of ground water • Thermal pollution • Chemicals from transportation

  17. Impacts on Soil • Desertification • Due to overgrazing and over farming usable, fertile land it converted into dry, barren soil

  18. Superfund Sites • Sites that contain uncontrolled and/or abandoned land where hazardous waste is located • State and Local governments are left to clean up the mess