We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect.
Land management and Soil Pollution Presented by:- Nivethetha Ramachandran Pallavi Singh Parvathy Vallyathan Kapil Parulekar
Definition • Land management is the process of managing the use and development (in bothurban and suburban settings) of land resources in a sustainable way. • Variety of uses of land which interact and may compete with one another • Need thus to plan and manage in an integrated manner
Importance • Land and water basic elements of life support system • Civilizations flourish with its presence and perish with its decline • A part of the Panchabhutas • Tendency of overexploitation due to consumerism, materialistic value systems, short term profit driven motives etc.
Indian Land distribution • Per capita availability of forests is 0.08 per ha • 75.5 mn ha wasteland in country • 58 mn ha treatable • Efforts to take 58 years to complete the process
Land Use and Degradation • 41 mn ha land totally unfit . • Per capita availability of land declined from 0.89 ha in 1951 to 0.3 ha in 2002 • Per capita agricultural land declined from 0.14 ha in 1951 to 0.14 ha in 2001
Land use and degradation contd... • It is estimated that 174 mn ha of land (53%) suffers from different types and varying degrees of degradation. • 800mn ha land are lost due to ingress of ravines • 5000 mn tonnes of topsoil are eroded every year. • In 2004, total wasteland has increased upto 20% of total land.
Management problems • Common property Land resource • Land use Change • Combating land degradation and desertification • Stakeholder participation and awareness creation • Legislation, Policies, programmes and other initiatives
Watershed degradation • Watershed is a geo-hydrological unit which drains at a common point. • watershed management entails the rational utilisation of land and water resources for optimum production but with minimum hazard to natural and human resources.
Wetland Conservation Programme • Wetlands – lands transitional b/w terrestrial & aquatic system • Life support systems • Effective in flood control,wastewater treatment, recharging of aquifers etc. • Programme on wetland conservation initiates in 1987 to identify, and conserve these resources • UNDP project • Ramsar Convention
Department of Land Resources • Nodal department created by Ministry of Rural Development • Mandate of developing valuable land resources in India • Issue- dynamic conservation, sustainable development and equitable access to the benefits of intervention
WALMI • Institute and research centre in state for land and water management • Provides training for efficient land management to engineers • New technology in irrigation and construction of dams, roads and canals
Strategies for sustainable land management • Practices Requiring Change • Greater Aboriginal involvement and respect: • Improved communication: • Management of commercial activities. • Support Required • recording ecological knowledge • developing and implementing management plans for vulnerable resources;
Strategies contd... • Land-use planning • Flood control • Urbanization • Water management • Long-term funding : ( Mining industry) • Wasteland management
Soil Pollution • Soil pollution refers to addition of solid and liquid wastes to soil creating imbalance in its natural composition and functions. • Caused by the presence of xenobiotic (man-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment • Also caused by agricultural runoff waters, industrial waste materials, acidic precipitates, and radioactive fallout
Continued… • Pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms • Soil pollutants include metals and their compounds, organic chemicals, oils and tars, pesticides, explosive and toxic gases, radioactive materials, biologically active materials, combustible materials, asbestos and other hazardous materials. • Released through disposal of domestic and industrial waste in designated landfills or uncontrolled dumps
Types of Soil Pollution • Agricultural • Pollution of surface soil • Pollution of underground soil • Soil pollution by industrial effluents and solid wastes • Pollution of surface soil • Disturbances in soil profile • Pollution due to urban activities • Pollution of surface soil • Pollution of underground soil
Causes • Increase in urbanization, forests encroached by construction • Disposal of non bio degradable wastes • Agricultural wastes, pesticides, fertilizers • Unfavorable and harmful irrigation practices- check more on this pt!!!!!!! • Mining- piles of coal and slag • Industrial wastes- chemicals and paints • Improper treatment of sewage- accumulation of solid wastes, biomass sludge
Effects • Water pollution through seepage to underground level or contaminated runoff reaches streams or oceans • Air pollution- release of volatile compounds.Eg. nitrogen , sulphur • Sewage sludge- heavy metals, unable to support plant life • Non water soluble chemicals in soil- accumulate in food chain • Uptake of contaminants by plants • Corrosion of underground pipelines and buildings • Increased erosion of surface soil • Reduced crop yields – loss of fertility
Effects - Agricultural • Reduced soil fertility • Reduced nitrogen fixation • Increased erodibility • Larger loss of soil and nutrients • Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs • Reduced crop yield • Imbalance in soil fauna and flora
Effects - Industrial • Dangerous chemicals entering underground water • Ecological imbalance • Release of pollutant gases • Release of radioactive rays causing health problems • Increased salinity • Reduced vegetation
Effects - Urban • Clogging of drains • Inundation of areas • Public health problems • Pollution of drinking water sources • Foul smell and release of gases • Waste management problems
Effects - Health • Affects health through contact or through inhalation of vaporized contaminants • Contamination of underground water through penetration • Carcinogenic or congenital disorder- exposure to metals like chromium, lead, petroleum etc. • Leukemia- benzene • Kidney damage- mercury and cyclodienes • liver changes, kidney changes and depression of the central nervous system induced by chlorinated solvents • headache, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation, skin rash or even death • Health of soil too is affected !!!
Control of Soil Pollution • Ban on use of plastic bags (below 20 microns thickness)ftpiuohy • Recycling of plastic wastes to manufacture many 'remake' items • Ban on deforestation • Encouraging forest re-plantation programmes • Encouraging social and agro forestry programmes • Undertaking many pollution awareness programmes
“The Earth has enough for everybody’s need but not for everybody’s greed” - Mahatma Gandhi