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Prayer to Our Guardian Angel

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  1. Prayer to Our Guardian Angel Angel of God, My Guardian Dear to whom God's love commits me here. Ever this day be at my side to light and guard and rule and guide. Amen.

  2. Announcements • Class t-shirts • Exam IV: Tuesday Oct 5th • Review Worksheet –tomorrow (on the web if you want it tonight) • HW: Read Parts II and III

  3. Chapter 4 Church Fathers and Heresies

  4. Athanasian Creed Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the Catholic Faith. Which Faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled; without doubt he shall perish everlastingly. And the Catholic Faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; Neither confounding the Persons; nor dividing the Essence. For there is one Person of the Father; another of the Son; and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one; the Glory equal, the Majesty coeternal. Such as the Father is; such is the Son; and such is the Holy Ghost. The Father uncreated; the Son uncreated; and the Holy Ghost uncreated…

  5. Athanasian Creed • Profession of Faith • Author unknown • Three Divine Persons of the Blessed Trinity • Incarnation of God the Son • Emphasizes the equality within the Trinity • Response to heretics/attacks

  6. Early Heresies Part I

  7. Heresy • “A species of unbelief, belonging to those who profess the Christian faith, but corrupt its dogmas”. (St. Thomas Aquinas)

  8. Heresies… • Deny or alter some part or parts of the Deposit of Faith

  9. Material Heresy • Results from a mistake • Misjudgment, ignorance of the truth, etc. • Needs immediate correction

  10. Formal Heresy • Willingly choosing to keep doctrines that are contradictorily to those of the Church • Keeping doctrines that have been condemned as being false

  11. Material Heresy Examples • Jesus was a sinner • Mary was not a Virgin • God created Christ

  12. Formal Heresy Examples • Rejection of the Eucharist • Teaching that Jesus didn’t overcome death by way of the Resurrection • Rejecting the Church’s teaching on Sunday Obligation

  13. Gnosticism • Secret knowledge • Demiurge (creator god) • Rejected MOST of the NT • “The Kingdom of God is within you.” (Gospel of Thomas)

  14. Gnosticism: View of Jesus • Jesus was merely a “messenger” • Jesus entrusted one disciple with secret teachings • Denied or limited the real humanity of Christ • Jesus not born: “appeared”

  15. Gnosticism’s Ethics • Rejected ethical teachings of the Church • Body = nature of evil: 1. self mutilation of the body 2. No possible way good soul can be damaged by actions of the body

  16. Gnosticism: the Appeal?? • Promised “salvation”: escape of the soul from the material world

  17. Ridiculed by Church Fathers • “My God made heaven and earth, and you cannot point to a measly vegetable yours has produced over all these centuries!” Tertullian

  18. Gnosticism: The Final Overview • What: Gnosticism • Who: ? (unknown) • Where: Judea/ Roman Empire • When: Birth of Christianity – Present day • Central Belief: Salvation may be achieved through knowledge • View of Christ: Christ was NOT human

  19. Marcionism (144-400s) • Founded by Marcion • Demiurge (god of the OT/Jealous god) • Jesus sent to destroy the OT god/Demiurge

  20. Marcion: Founder of Marcionism • Father was a Bishop • Was a wealthy shipbuilder • Survived Empire’s “put down” of Jewish uprising • Excommunicated as a heretic

  21. Marcionism • Jesus did not have a true human body/was not from God • Rejected the OT • Christian life must be freed from material reality

  22. Marcionism Differed from Gnosticism • Did not claim possession of secret knowledge • No unique scripture • No divine beings (pleroma)

  23. Church’s Rejection of Marcionism • Rejected Monotheism • Rejected creation was good • Rejected the true humanity of Jesus (death on Cross was payment to the creator god)

  24. Marcionism: the Final Overview • What: Marcionism • Who: Marcion • When : 144-400s AD • Where: Rome • Central Belief: God of Jesus Christ sent to destroy the Demiurge • View of Christ: Jesus was NOT truly human

  25. Manichaeism (250s –1000s) • Elaborate brand of Gnosticism • Founded by Mani • Goal was to share a secret knowledge that led to liberation

  26. Mani • Persian • Condemned to death • Viewed self as a spiritual leader (Buddha, Jesus) • Provided path to true freedom

  27. Manichaeists Believed … • Satan had stolen light particles from the brains of men/women • Goal was to liberate humanity from Satan • In living an ascetic life • Jesus was/is NOT Divine

  28. Manichaeism: The Final Overview • What:Manichaeism • Who: Mani • When: 250s-1000s • Where: Persia/India (Roman Empire) • Central Belief: Man can be liberated from Satan through a secret knowledge • View of Christ: Jesus was NOT Divine (only a human spiritual leader)

  29. Montanism (156-200) • Were they an early women’s rights group? • A form of monasticism? • A strange group waiting for the end of the world? • … a little bit of all of these.

  30. Montanus • Founder of Montanism • Began movement by preaching • Originally a pagan priest • Excommunicated by the Church (Turkey) • Had two female prophets with him • Believed that the “end” was at hand

  31. Montanism • Age of the Father • Age of the Son • Age of the Holy Spirit (final age)

  32. Montanism • New Heavenly movement would begin in Pepuza • Canon of Scripture should NOT be closed • “Charismatic” • Believed Church was too soft on sinners

  33. Montanism: The Final Overview • What: Montanism • Who:Montanus • Where: Turkey/Rome/ Pepuza • When: 156-200s • Central Belief: A New heavenly kingdom would be revealed by the power of the Holy Spirit in Pepuza (the end was near) • View of Jesus Christ: Jesus was Divine and human

  34. Docetism (30s-100s) • Branch of Gnosticism • “to appear” • Jesus’ humanity was merely an appearance

  35. Docetism • Jesus was did not suffer the pain of the Crucifixion and death • Preached that someone else switched places with Christ before the Crucifixion • Christ escaped from it.

  36. Docetism: The final overview • What: Docetism • Who: ? (unknown) • When: 305 -1000s • Where: Roman Empire • Central Belief: Christ did NOT suffer the Crucifixion; Gnostic • View of Jesus Christ: Christ was not fully human

  37. The Ecumenical Councils Part II

  38. Ecumenical Councils • There has been 21 ecumenical councils • All the Bishops of the world (under the Pope) meet to discuss issues facing the Church.

  39. Types of Councils • Synod • Diocesan • Provincial • Plenary

  40. Synod • Meeting between the Bishops and the Pope (their leader)

  41. Diocesan Council • Meeting of the Bishops, laymen/laywomen, and representatives of the Clergy meet and discuss matters of the diocese.

  42. Provincial Council • Meeting of the Archbishop with his suffragan bishops

  43. Plenary Council • Meeting of all Bishops within a single nation

  44. Church Fathers Part III

  45. Characteristics of the Church Fathers • Orthodoxy in doctrine • Holiness • Notoriety • Antiquity • Two Groups: Latin/ Greek

  46. Patristics • The writings of the Church Fathers

  47. Doctor of the Church • Title only given by the Pope to those whose development of theology is extraordinary

  48. St. Ambrose of Milan • Governor of Milan • Anointed Bishop (was only a Catechumen) • Defended the independence of the Church from the State • Did not get along with Emperor(s) because of high moral standards

  49. St. Jerome • Translated the Hebrew Bible into Latin (Vulgate)

  50. Latin Vulgate • Most accurate translation of the Bible • Translation of Scripture into Latin • Uniformed Scripture for the West