Socialism Ch 13 Sec 5
Socialism-- Beginnings • During the Industrial Revolution, very few people became enormously rich. • Most stayed poor. • There was a uneven distribution of wealth. • Many felt the only way to change was to take over ownership of the means of production. • Capital and equipment used to produce and exchange goods.
Socialism • Under Socialism the government owns the means of production and operates them for the benefits of all, rich or poor. • Wanted to do away with profit motive and competition. • Everyone had the right to share in the profits.
Theories of Karl Marx • Marx believed that the entire capitialist system should be destroyed. • Believed that all great changes in history came from changes in economic conditions. • Karl Marx, published a book called the Communist Manifesto. • His view of human history was that of Class Struggle
Class Struggle • Marx believed that history involved inequality. • Struggle between the owners, or bourgeoisie and the working class, or Proletariat. • All wealth is made by labor. • Labor only get a small fraction of wealth. • Eventually the world would be controled by a small number of capitialist. • Governments needed to be controled by force.
Classless Society • Marx believed that this would turn into a classless society “pure communism”. • Each person would contribute what they could and would receive what they need.
Variations of Socialism • Many socialist believed that violent revolution was required to get rid of capitialism. • This was the only way to control the means of production. • This economic and political system is called Communism. • Other believed that through education and change, they could take over peacefully. • This is called democratic socialism. • In all cases the workers had to unite to defeat capitialsim.
The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. • The Communists do not form a separate party opposed to other working-class parties. They have no interests separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole. They do not set up any sectarian principles of their own, by which to shape and mould the proletariat movement. • Working men of all countries, unite!