Download
advancing the state of the art in tire testing the tire society september 21 2010 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Advancing the State-of-the-Art in Tire Testing The Tire Society September 21, 2010 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Advancing the State-of-the-Art in Tire Testing The Tire Society September 21, 2010

Advancing the State-of-the-Art in Tire Testing The Tire Society September 21, 2010

209 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Advancing the State-of-the-Art in Tire Testing The Tire Society September 21, 2010

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Advancing the State-of-the-Art in Tire TestingThe Tire SocietySeptember 21, 2010 Camber Ridge, LLC Dr. James F. Cuttino, President jcuttino@camberridge.com www.camberridge.com 704-575-1688

  2. Agenda • Motivation for Examining Current Capabilities • Lab-Based Tire Testing • On-Road Tire Testing • Pros and Cons • A Design Proposal • Conclusions MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 2 Camber Ridge, LLC

  3. Motivation • FMVSS 126 Protocol for Electronic Stability Control • 100% Compliance by September, 2011 • Current development relies heavily on prototype testing on proving grounds • Each prototype vehicle = $500,000 (passenger car) • 50 - 100 prototypes to production • NCAP Rollover Protocols • Similar developmental costs • In summary, need to simulate extreme maneuvers • Requires dynamic inputs in slip angle, loads, camber • Simulations rely on projected curves and extrapolation MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 3 Camber Ridge, LLC

  4. Motivation • Heavy Truck Industry • Few facilities can handle size / highloads (10,000 - 15,000 lbs normal) • High torque requirements • Durability testing • Tire harmonics • Rolling Resistance / Fuel Economy • Pending regulations for electronic stability control • Impact of customer-specified options (including tires) on vehicle compliance with regulations • New regulations for stopping distance MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 4 Camber Ridge, LLC

  5. Akron Standard (early 1900’s) In-Lab Testing Systems MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 5 Camber Ridge, LLC

  6. Subtleties of Design • Care required not to introduce parasitic errors Freudenmann, T., Unrau, H.-J., and El-Haji, M., ‘‘Experimental Determination of the Effect of the Surface Curvature on Rolling Resistance Measurements,’’ Tire Science and Technology, TSTCA, Vol. 37, No. 4, October – December 2009, pp. 254-278. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 6 Camber Ridge, LLC

  7. In-lab Testing Systems Prüfstand für Fahrzeug/Fahrbahn Federal High- way Research Institute (BASt), Germany MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 7 Camber Ridge, LLC

  8. 80 Grit Sandpaper Modeling the Surface(Samples from Race Tracks in the US) Concord Atlanta Bristol (concrete) Talledega Texas Darlington MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 8 Camber Ridge, LLC

  9. On-road Testing Systems MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 9 Camber Ridge, LLC

  10. GM Tire Cornering Test Vehicle Test Wheel Test Wheel Correction Wheel Correction Wheel 5th Wheel Sensor Cortese, A.D., and C.S. Rockafellow, “General Motors Proving Ground Tire Cornering Test Vehicle”, SAE Transactions, 1971-02-01, Paper 710092 MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 10 Camber Ridge, LLC

  11. On-road Testing Systems 1972 - Michelin PLR Citroën components, two small-block Chevrolet 350 V-8s, one to drive test tire, other to power the vehicle. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 11 Camber Ridge, LLC

  12. Current In-lab Systems • Pro’s • Controlled environment • Good Repeatability • Historical Data Pool • Industry Standard • 24-7 Operation • Con’s • Simulated road surface - concerns on accuracy • Load limits, depending on application • Torque magnitude and control • Limits on wet traction studies, etc. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 12 Camber Ridge, LLC

  13. Comparison of Belt vs. Asphalt Increasing Slip M. G. Pottinger, G. A. Tapia, C. B. Winkler, and W. Pelz, "A Straight-Line Braking Test for Heavy Duty Truck Tires," Paper No. 45, ACS Rubber Division, Cleveland, OH, 10/17-20/95, published in Rubber World, Vol. 214, No. 6, September 1996, pp. 29-36. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 13 Camber Ridge, LLC

  14. Comparisons of 2 Belt Coatings M. G. Pottinger, G. A. Tapia, C. B. Winkler, and W. Pelz, "A Straight-Line Braking Test for Heavy Duty Truck Tires," Paper No. 45, ACS Rubber Division, Cleveland, OH, 10/17-20/95, published in Rubber World, Vol. 214, No. 6, September 1996, pp. 29-36. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 14 Camber Ridge, LLC

  15. Belt vs. On-road Results Belt Machine On-road Trailer M. G. Pottinger, G. A. Tapia, C. B. Winkler, and W. Pelz, "A Straight-Line Braking Test for Heavy Duty Truck Tires," Paper No. 45, ACS Rubber Division, Cleveland, OH, 10/17-20/95, published in Rubber World, Vol. 214, No. 6, September 1996, pp. 29-36. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 15 Camber Ridge, LLC

  16. Comparison of 3 Common Lab Configurations Freudenmann, T., Unrau, H.-J., and El-Haji, M., ‘‘Experimental Determination of the Effect of the Surface Curvature on Rolling Resistance Measurements,’’ Tire Science and Technology, TSTCA, Vol. 37, No. 4, October – December 2009, pp. 254-278. MOTIVATION MOTIVATION LAB-BASED LAB-BASED ON-ROAD ON-ROAD PROS/CONS PROS/CONS DESIGN DESIGN 16 Camber Ridge, LLC

  17. Discrepancy largest for 2.0 m drum Rolling ResistanceFlat Hydrodynamic Bearing, 1.71 m Drum, 2.0 m Drum Freudenmann, T., Unrau, H.-J., and El-Haji, M., ‘‘Experimental Determination of the Effect of the Surface Curvature on Rolling Resistance Measurements,’’ Tire Science and Technology, TSTCA, Vol. 37, No. 4, October – December 2009, pp. 254-278. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 17 Camber Ridge, LLC

  18. Current On-road Systems • Pro’s • Realistic operating conditions • Ability to study affects such as temperature • Control over surface and profiling (asphalt, concrete, cleats, etc.) • Wet traction, snow, other • Con’s • Repeatability dependent on ability to control environment • Compliance of system limits loads • Metrology frame coupled with load frame • Dependence on driver variability • Limited throughput MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 18 Camber Ridge, LLC

  19. Braking Results vs. Track Location Uncontrolled Braking Position Braking Position Controlled Treichel and Drahne, Tire Tests with a New Tracking System for Passenger Cars, SAE 880581, 1988. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 19 Camber Ridge, LLC

  20. Effect of Temperature on Braking Performance Increasing Temp Treichel and Drahne, Tire Tests with a New Tracking System for Passenger Cars, SAE 880581, 1988. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 20 Camber Ridge, LLC

  21. Opportunities for Improvement • Limitations to existing technologies: • Generally limited to quasi-static testing conditions • Limited load ranges, particularly for belt machines • Limited torque applications in driving / braking • Generally simulated surfaces (drums, belts, abrasive surfaces) • Often restricted to lower speeds • Open loop operation forces dependence on carpet plots and lookup tables for dynamic simulations MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 21 Camber Ridge, LLC

  22. Opportunities for Improvement • Opportunities to advance state-of-the-art • More realistic interface • Wet traction, off-road (military), etc. • Dynamic input • High torque braking (heavy truck, aircraft) • ABS braking / system analysis • Long distance wear studies • Rolling Resistance • Drift and Pull • Hardware in the Loop Capabilities MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 22 Camber Ridge, LLC

  23. “Ideal” Design Approach • Contact Interface rules - protect at all costs. • Simplify design as much as possible. • Separate load loops from metrology loops where possible and appropriate. • Consider modularity, flexibility. • Control environment while providing variability. • Minimize special order components. MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 23 Camber Ridge, LLC

  24. “Ideal” Design Approach • Accuracy vs. Repeatability • Each has its place • Resolution / Sensitivity • High loads and torques vs. Rolling resistance, drift and pull, uniformity • Constraints and actuation • Force Inputs - downforce, torque, Fx, etc. • Displacement Inputs - Yaw Angle, Camber Angle, Steer Angle • Rigid constraints critical for controlled, displacement based inputs MOTIVATION LAB-BASED ON-ROAD PROS/CONS DESIGN 24 Camber Ridge, LLC

  25. Conclusion • Tire Testing has advanced significantly over the years • Advances have been incremental, following two fairly distinctive paths • Understanding the history of tire testing provides a strong foundation for developing the next generation of testing capabilities • Next meeting of the Camber Ridge Consortium is in late October 25 Camber Ridge, LLC

  26. Camber Ridge, LLC Camber Ridge, LLC

  27. Camber Ridge, LLC