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Chapter 13 Coming to Terms With the New Age, 1820s—1850s

Chapter 13 Coming to Terms With the New Age, 1820s—1850s. “Americans love their country not as it is but as it will be.” Foreigner Francis Grund  “Why Lizzie, thee will make us ridiculous.” Lucretia Mott, 1848. Introduction. Lewis Tappin, Roger Baldwin

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Chapter 13 Coming to Terms With the New Age, 1820s—1850s

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  1. Chapter 13 Coming to Terms With the New Age, 1820s—1850s

  2. “Americans love their country not as it is but as it will be.” Foreigner Francis Grund  “Why Lizzie, thee will make us ridiculous.” Lucretia Mott, 1848

  3. Introduction • Lewis Tappin, Roger Baldwin • Angelina and Sarah Grimke, Dwight Weld • John Humphrey Noyes, Oneida • Robert Owen, New Harmony • Karl Marx • Train cities, instant cities, walking cities • Political, economic, social, cultural, intellectual, environmental, “history”

  4. Chapter Focus Questions • What impact did the new 1840s & 1850s immigration have on American cities? • Why did urbanization produce so many problems? • What motivated the social reformers of the period? [Were they benevolent helpers or dictatorial social controllers? Study several reform causes and discuss similarities and differences among them.] • Abolitionism differed little from other reforms in its tactics, but the effects of antislavery activism were politically explosive. Why was this so?

  5. Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803-1882 -- Transcendentalist philosopher

  6. Nathaniel Hawthorne 1804-1864 The Scarlet Letter [1850]

  7. “The Wayside” at Concord, MA – home to both Hawthorne and Louisa May Alcott

  8. Henry David Thoreau 1817-1862 Walden, 1854

  9. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 1807-1882 -- Paul Revere’s Ride, The Song of Hiawatha, Evangeline

  10. Longfellow’s home in Cambridge, MA – taught Harvard modern languages, 1836-1854

  11. Noah Webster 1758-1843 -- an ardent Federalist, published 1806 dictionary

  12. Horace Mann 1796-1859 -- Sec. of the MA state board of education, Rep. 1849-1853

  13. A page from McGuffey’s Reader, first published by William Holmes McGuffey 1800-1873 [6 editions, 122 million copies, used until the 1920s]

  14. Prudence Crandell 1803-1889 -- Quaker school teacher who admitted an African American to her Canterbury, Conn. school – Conn passed new law in 1833 making this illegal – she was later jailed twice for breaking this law

  15. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet 1787-1851 Started first free school for education of the deaf in Philadelphia in 1817

  16. Edward Miner Gallaudet 1837-1918 – Son of Thomas Gallaudet, opened Washington, D.C. school for the deaf

  17. NY Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb in early 19th century [LA public hospital of 1930s was free for the poor!]

  18. Samuel Gridley Howe 1801-1876 -- Ran New England Asylum for the Blind for 44 years

  19. Dorothea Lynde Dix 1802-1887 -- Between 1838 & Civil War lobbied to improve conditions for insane – led to new hospitals and asylums in 15 states and Canada

  20. NY Lunatic Asylum –cure insane through kind treatment and healthful living conditions

  21. Robert Mills 1781-1855 -- South Carolina architect – designed asylum with private rooms for each inmate, fresh air circulation

  22. “Widows’ and Orphans’ Asylum in Philadelphia -- this publicly funded institution replaced privately funded ones

  23. Auburn, NY State Prison -- belief that the environment, not character created criminals

  24. University of Virginia at Charlottesville, founded in 1819 – an “academic village”

  25. Transylvania University at Lexington, Kentucky -- founded in 1780

  26. “Slab Hall” or “Cincinnati Hall,” one of 1st dormitory buildings at Oberlin College, built in 1835 [Founded when Lane Seminary in Cincinnati refused to endorse the immediate abolition of slavery -- Theodore Dwight Weld led students to form their own college!]

  27. Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, 1836 -- first college for the higher education of “daughters” in South Hadley, MA

  28. Washington, D.C.’s Smithsonian Institution, founded in 1846 with a legacy from James Smithsonian of London

  29. One of earliest US Sunday schools in Beverly, MA -- new focus on children, their education, and “Republican motherhood”

  30. Charles Grandison Finney 1792-1875 – Presbyterian minister by 21, then became Congregationalist and revivalist – president of Oberlin College, 1851-1865

  31. William Ellery Channing 1780-1842 -- father of American Unitarianism in 1819 – humanitarianism, rationality, and religious toleration – influenced Transcendentalists

  32. Robert Owen 1771-1858 -- British social reformer, established several model industrial communities including New Harmony, Indiana -- environment creates the human society which was perfectible through cooperation

  33. “A Bird’s Eye view of one of the new communities at New Harmony, Indiana, an association of two thousand persons formed upon the principles advocated by Robert Owen.” Founded in 1825 and dissolved in 1827, its residents founded the first US kindergarten, the first free public school, and the first free public library. Drawing of the plan created by architect Stedman Whitwell in 1828

  34. Ann Lee’s “Shakers” – United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing -- 1774 in NY, celibacy, 6,000 members in 1830s

  35. Shaker Village of Alfred, Maine – millenium sect with communal life

  36. Oneida, NY community’s business office, founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 – corporate marriage of all members to each other – communal care of children

  37. Iowa’s Amana Community, founded in 1855

  38. Joseph Smith 1805-1844, founded Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints based on visions from God at Palmyra, NY in 1827 and published in Book of Mormon in 1829

  39. Nauvoo, Illinois Mormon Temple -- burned by mob, anti-polygamists and anti-communally owned property

  40. Brigham Young 1801-1877

  41. Mormons emigrating to Utah in 1847

  42. Salt Lake City in 1855

  43. Arthur Tappan 1786-1865 -- he and brother Lewis were NY evangelicals and wealthy silk merchants – helped fund American Anti-Slavery Society [he became the president], The Liberator, Lane Seminary, and Oberlin College

  44. Theodore Dwight Weld 1803-1895 -- a disciple of Finney, attempted to radicalize the Lane Theological Seminary – married Angelina Emily Grimke [1805-1879] in 1838 – his 1839 American Slavery as it Is was a source for Harriet Beecher Stowe

  45. Sarah Moore Grimke 1792-1873 – to Philadelphia from Charleston to protest slavery

  46. James G. Birney 1792-1857 -- founded Kentucky Anti-Slavery Society, co-founder of 1840 Liberty Party, its candidate for president in 1840 and 1844

  47. William Lloyd Garrison 1805-1879 -- first militant white voice for immediate abolition [Free African Americans had opposed colonization in Africa and gradual emancipation]

  48. Masthead of William Lloyd Garrison’s newspaper on August 13, 1831 Issue #1 on Jan. 1, 1831 reads: “I am in earnest – I will not equivocate – I will not excuse – I will not retreat a single inch – AND I WILL BE HEARD.”

  49. Frederick Douglass 1817-1895 -- escaped from slavery in 1838, autobiography in 1845, The North Star newspaper

  50. Elijah P. Lovejoy 1802-1837 – Nov. 7, 1837 in Alton, Illinois, his 4th press was destroyed and he was killed by proslavery men from Missouri

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