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The Federalist Era

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  1. The Federalist Era CH. 9 Notes

  2. The First President • George Washington- 1st President, April 30, 1789 • John Adams Vice President • Sets Precedents -Mr. President, two terms, foreign policy, Cabinet • The Cabinet • top executive advisers • chose top politicians from many different factions

  3. Judiciary Act of 1789 • established a federal court system • The states kept their own laws and courts • federal courts had the power to reverse state decisions • Supreme Court- Final Authority • John Jay: 1st Chief Justice

  4. The Economy • Hamilton’s Plan • federal government pay off the states' wartime debts • Pay off bonds (debt to citizens) at full value • Opposition: Southern States had less debt, Profit to speculators • Compromise • Capital located in Southern States if agree to Hamilton’s plan • Washington DC

  5. Economy Part 2 • National Bank • Hamilton wanted National Bank for government funds and to issue national currency • Opposition because NOT a power of Congress in Constitution • George Washington supported Bank • Tariffs/Taxes • Hamilton wanted tariffs to protect Am. Industry and provide govt. funds • South opposes because imported many goods • Congress only passed low tariffs

  6. Domestic Troubles • Whiskey Rebellion • Tax on Whiskey • July 1794: armed mob attacked tax collectors and burned down buildings • Washington sent Federal troops • Government will use force to maintain order • The West • Conflicts with Native Americans (encouraged by Britain and Spain) • Treaty of Greenville (1795)-Native American leaders agreed to surrender most of the land in what is now Ohio

  7. Troubles Abroad • Europe • French Revolution splits country • Britain and France go to War and splits country • Neutrality • Britain Impressment, Forces sailors to join Navy • Interferes American Trade • Jay's Treaty: the British agreed to withdraw from American soil, no mention of impressment or British interference with American trade • Pinckney's Treaty (with Spain) • 1795 • gave the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right to trade at New Orleans

  8. Federalist Alexander Hamilton More Federal Power Supported National Bank Implied Powers of Constitution Educated people act as representatives New England

  9. Democratic Republicans Thomas Jefferson, James Madison States Rights, Less Federal Power Against the National Bank Strict Interpretation of the Constitution Ordinary citizens fully involved in government South

  10. Political Parties • Formation

  11. Presidential Election of 1796 • Political parties • Caucus • Chose their parties' candidates for President (each picked two) • Federalists : John Adams and Charles Pinckney • Republicans : Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr • Electors vote for two: Two highest become Pres. and Vice Pres. • John Adams becomes President • Thomas Jefferson Vice President

  12. XYZ Affair • France was upset because Jay’s Treaty • Began seizing American Ships • John Adams sent representatives to France • France refused to meet with American officials • France sent three agents (X,Y,Z) to demand bribe and loan from American Government • Angers Adams and American people • Foreign interference in American Government

  13. Alien and Sedition Acts • 1798 • allowed the president to imprison aliens or deport those thought to be dangerous • Illegal to criticize the government • Democratic-Republicans opposed these acts • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799 • claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the Constitution • declared that the states should not put them into action • Kentucky Resolution: states could legally overturn federal laws they thought were unconstitutional • Issue of States rights