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Specimen Collections

Specimen Collections

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Specimen Collections

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  1. Specimen Collections

  2. Urine Specimens • Random specimen • Clean-voided or midstream specimen • Sterile specimen • Timed urine specimen • Urine Collection in Children

  3. Urine Specimens • Clean catch midstream • Explain procedure • Open kit – surgical asepsis • Female: clean front to back, hold labia apart for collection • Male: cleanse end of penis, circular motion • Initiate stream, then collect specimen

  4. Urine Specimens • Clean catch midstream (cont.) • Label on specimen • Biohazard bag • Requisition on outside of bag

  5. Urine Specimens • Sterile (from catheter) • Clamp below port • Wipe port with antimicrobial swab • Insert needle (3ml; 23-25g) • Aspirate 3-5 ml. • Transfer urine aseptically to container • Label, bag, requisition

  6. Urine Specimens • Timed Specimens • creatinine clearance • protein quanitification • adrenocortical steroids

  7. Urine Specimens • Timed Specimens (cont.) • Begins: after client voids • Discard sample and indicate starting time on: 1) Collection container 2) Lab requisition slip 3) Bathroom or bedside

  8. Urine Specimens • Timed Specimens (cont.) • Collect in clean container • Empty into large container immediately • On ice or preservative • Void at end of time & send to lab

  9. Urine Specimens • Collection in children • Clear plastic single use bags • Do not squeeze urine from diaper

  10. Common tests done on urine • UA = urinalysis • Specific Gravity • Urine Culture

  11. Urinalysis(normal values) • pH (4.8-8.0) average 6.0 • Protein (none) • Glucose (none) • Ketones (none) • Blood (up to 2 RBC’S) • Specific gravity (1.010-1.025) • WBC’S (0-4) • Bacteria (none) • Casts (none)

  12. Fecal SpecimensCh. 45 • Hemacult or guaiac • Ova and Parasites • Culture and Sensitivity

  13. Fecal Specimens • Indications for collection: • Tumors • Hemorrhage • Infection

  14. Fecal Specimens • Collection: • Pt. instruction • Can not be mixed with water or urine • 1 inch formed stool • 15-30 ml liquid, diarheal stool • Avoid delays in sending • Ova and Parasites: require keeping warm

  15. Fecal Specimens • Guaiac • Fecal occult blood FOBT • Hemacult – most common • Microscopic amounts of blood • Screening for: colon ca, anticoagulants, GI disorders

  16. Sputum Specimens • Culture • Cytology • AFB = Tuberculosis

  17. Sputum Specimens • Collection: • Teach to cough effectively • Keep inside of container sterile • Document: color, consistency, amt, odor • Early morning specimen

  18. GLUCOMETER • Blood glucose • Normal values • Indications for checking

  19. Review Questions • In a timed urine collection, any missed specimens will extend the end time. • TRUE OR FALSE?

  20. Review Questions • When collecting a urine specimen from an infant – it is OK to squeeze urine from the diaper? • TRUE OR FALSE?

  21. Review Questions • A urine culture can be obtained from a urinalysis • TRUE OR FALSE?

  22. Review Questions • If a client is taking iron supplements, the hemacult test will show a false positive. • TRUE OR FALSE?

  23. Review Questions • When collecting a stool specimen for ova a parasites, the nurse should refrigerate the specimen untill it can be transported to the lab • TRUE OR FALSE?

  24. Review Questions • When is the best time to obtain a sputum specimen?