CURRENT STATUS OF POTATO PRODUCTION, CONSTRAINTS AND STRATEGIES. Dr. R.P.Gupta DIRECTOR NATIONAL HORTICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION, NASIK (MS)
INTRODUCTION • Potato is one of the unique crops grown in the country having high productivity and supplementing food needs. • Potato has higher nutritive value. • Potato is rich in carbohydrates, proteins, phosphorus, calcium, vitamin C and vitamin A. • Potato is high yielding short duration crop and has high protein calory ratio.
AREA AND PRODUCTION World Scenario • India ranks 4th in area and 3rd in production in the world. • About 328.87 million tonnes of potato are produced in the world over an areas of about 19.13 million hectare. • China, Russian Federation, India, USA, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Belarus, Netherlands, France, UK, Canada, Turkey, Romania are the major potato growing countries in the world.
In India potato is produced in an area of 14.00 lakh ha With a production of 250 lakh tonnes and productivity of 17.86 ton per ha as per FAO figure for the year 2004. • However, as per preliminary estimates of NHRDF for the year 2005-06, the estimated production is about 245.18 lakh tonnes from an area of 14.30 lakh ha. However during 2004-05, estimated production was around 264.78 lakhs MT.
Indian Scenario • In India Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer with a production of about 98.21 lakh tonnes during 2004-05 from an area of 4.40 lakh ha. • Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Assam, Karnataka, Uttaranchal are important potato growing states. • The trend in production of potato has been quite stable in U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Haryana and Punjab states.
The highest productivity of 22.62 tonnes per ha was recorded in Gujarat followed by U.P (22.32 tonnes/ha), Uttaranchal (21.73 tonnes/ha), W.B (21.61 tonnes/ha), during 2004-05.
SEASONS • More than 80% of the potato crop is raised in the winter season (Rabi) under assured irrigation during short winter days from October to March. • About 8% area lies in the hills during long summer days from April to October. • Rainy season (Kharif) potato production is taken in Karnataka, Maharashtra, HP, J&K and Uttranchal mainly.
Plateau regions of South-eastern, central and peninsular India , constitute about 6 per cent area where potatoes are grown as a rainfed crop during rainy season (July to October). • In a small area covering mainly the Nilgiri and Palni hills of Tamilnadu, the crop is grown round the year both as irrigated and rainfed crop.
Sr. Agro-ecological Zone Duration* Recommended Variety VARIETIES 1 North-Western Plains Early ‘Kufri Chandramukhi’, ‘Kufri Jawahar’, ‘ Kufri Kuber’ Medium ‘Kufri Alankar’, ‘Kufri Badshah’, ‘ Kufri Dewa’, ‘Kufri Pukharj’, ‘ Kufri Sheetman’, ’Kufri Sutlej’ 2 North Eastern Plains Early ‘ Kufri Ashoka’, ’Kufri Kuber’ Medium ‘ Kufri Chipsona 1’, ’Kufri Chipsona 2’, ’Kufri Lalima’, ’Kufri Pukhar’, ‘Kufri Red’, ’Kufri Sutlej’
3 West Central Plains Late ‘Kufri Safed’, ‘Kufri Sindhuri’ Early ‘Kufri Chandramukhi’, ‘ Kufri Jawahar’,’Kufri Kuber’ Medium ‘Kufri Chamatkar’, ‘ Kufri Kisan’, ‘ Kufri Sindhuri’ 4 Plateau Region Early ‘Kufri Chamatkar’, ‘ Kufri Jawahar’, ‘ Kufri Jyotir’, ’Kufri Kuber’, ’Kufri Lauvkar’ Medium ‘Kufri Pukhraj’ 5 North Western Hills Medium ‘Kufri Giriraj’, Kufri Jyoti’, ‘Kufri Kundan’ Late ‘Kufri Jeevan’, ‘Kufri Kumar’
6 North Eastern Hills Medium Kufri Giriraj’, Kufri Jyoti’, ‘Kufri Megha’ Late Kufri Khasigaro’, Kufri Naveen’, 7 North Bengal and Sikkim hills Southern hills Medium ‘Kufri Jyoti’, ’Kufri Kanchan’, ‘ Kufri Sherpa’ Medium ‘Kufri Giriraj’, ’Kufri jyoti’,’Kufri Muthu’, Kufri Swarna’ Late ‘Kufri Neela’, ‘Kufri Neelamani’ * Early, 78-80 days: Medium, 90-100 days; and late, 100-110 days
CURRENT STATUS Mostly the damage from cold waves was noted in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana states. No effect of cold waves were noted in other states.
UTTAR PRADESH • Total area under potato crop as per NHRDF estimate is to be around 4,40,000 ha. Due to cold waves and dipping temperature about 20% losses were reported. Maximum losses were reported in late planted November crop.
The production, was estimated to be around 95.00 lakhs MT, will now be reduced to about 77.00 lakhs MT because of recent damage. • In the previous year about 58.53 lakhs MT potato were stored in cold stores of UP . This year it is estimated to be around 45-48 lakhs MT.
PUNJAB • Total area under potato crop is estimated to be around 75,000 ha. Due to cold wave and dipping temperature about 20-25% losses were reported. • The main areas of the state got affected are Bathinda, Jallandhar, Kapurthala, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar.
The crop, which was planted early in September/October were at maturity stage, reported to be less damage. • The crop planted medium to late be reported to be damage by about 50%.
The potato production, which was estimated to be around 14.00 lakhs MT, will now be reduced to around 10-11 lakh MT.
HARYANA • Total area is estimated to be about 18,500 ha. Due to cold wave and dipping temperature about 50-60% losses have been reported in one-third of late planted area i.e. around 6000 ha. Mostly the late-planted crop, which was planted in Nov-Dec, has been extensively damaged.
STATUS OF CURRENT REQUIREMENT OF POTATO • About 25 million tones are the normal production of potatoes, which is the normal requirement also for the consumption including requirement for seed bulbs, processing industries, export, waste and storage losses etc.
Present estimated production is about 24.51 million tones which is little less to meet the demand, which could be compensated by the restrictions on export and also by increasing area under kharif potato production.
CORRECTIVE MEASURES TO BE TAKEN TO OVERCOME THE EXPECTED SHORTFALL • Government may ensure the increase in kharif potato area during 2006 particularly in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttaranchal, J&K, North East, M.P, Tamilnadu and H.P. by providing financial assistance.
State governments of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttaranchal, J&K, North East, M.P, Tamilnadu and H.P. should ensure the increase in area under kharif and early rabi crop so that fresh potato availability during the months of May/June to October/November is increased.