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Question # 1

Question # 1

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Question # 1

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  1. Question # 1 In Ontario, what percentage of children and youth between the ages 4-16 suffer from some type of mental illness?

  2. The Answer? 20%

  3. Question # 2 What is the second* most common cause of death in teens? (*the#1 cause is accidental death)

  4. The Answer? Suicide

  5. Question # 3 What percentage of individuals who are depressed respond to treatment?

  6. The Answer? 80-90%

  7. Question # 4 Can you name three negative things people with mental illness or mental health difficulties might have to face?

  8. The Answer? Stigma Alienation Misunderstanding

  9. What is mental health? Mental health can be measured by how well we cope with stress, relate to others and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.

  10. Mental Health is how we… Feel – feelings, sentiments, moods, sensitivity, affection, attachment, and relationships (self and others) Think – thinking, memory, learning, language, decision making, problem solving, understanding, point of view, and relationships (self and others) Act– actions, deeds, activities, manners, conduct, performance, and relationships (self and others)

  11. Mental Health Mental health relates to feeling good, both mentally and physically. When you are mentally healthy, you are generally high functioning in your thinking, behavior, and feelings. You may have your ups and downs, but your general state of being is good.

  12. Mental Health Difficulties Mental health difficulties can range from temporary reactions to a painful event or stress, symptoms of drug or alcohol use, lack of sleep, etc. right through to more severe psychiatric conditions and mental illness, such as depression and anxiety.

  13. Mental Health Difficulties • Some factors that may contribute to mental health difficulties include: • The environment • Personal life experiences • Your physical body

  14. Major Mental Health Problems • Psychosis • Mood • Anxiety • Personality • Addiction • Eating Disorders

  15. Psychosis, disturbance of thinking • Hallucinations • Delusions • Disorganized • Behaviors • Thinking • Speech (incoherence) • Movement - Catatonia

  16. Pathways to Psychosis • Mental Illness • Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder • Bipolar Mania, Severe depression • Paranoid and Borderline Personality Disorders • Substances • e.g. Stimulants, Cannabis • Brain Injuries / Medical Disease • e.g. Alzheimer's

  17. Treatment of Psychosis • Medication • Skill Building • Social networks for support • Medication Compliance • Occupational support and job • Relapse prevention / Stress Management

  18. Commonly Held Misconceptions of Mental Illness • People with mental illness are always violent and dangerous • People with mental illness are somehow responsible for their condition • People with mental illness have nothing positive to contribute • We need to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness. • We need to develop a strong sense of understanding, empathy, compassion and tolerance

  19. Myth #1 You can always tell when someone is experiencing mental illness Fact Not all people who look or act differently are mentally ill. Some people exhibit eccentric behaviour as a matter of choice and not because of mental illness. Common Myths and Mental Illness

  20. Myth #2 Mental illnesses are long-term illnesses. Fact Mental illness is not necessarily long term. Some mentally ill people may have several episodes of mental illness in their lifetime while having long periods of healthy living in between.

  21. Myth #3 Mental illness is associated with a low level of intelligence. Fact On the contrary, people with mental illnesses are of average or above average IQ.

  22. Mental Health Disorders

  23. Mood Disorders • Depression • SAD (seasonal affective disorder) • Mania • Bipolar I & II

  24. Depression • Low mood • Anhedonia - lack of pleasure • Unintentional Weight Change • Insomnia or Hypersomnia • Fatigue or Loss of Energy • Worthlessness or Guilty • Thinking problems • Morbid thoughts

  25. Depression • Is very common component of substance use and withdrawal, particularly alcohol, opioids, steroids and stimulants. • Typically takes 4-8 weeks of clean time before substance-induced depression can be ruled out • Older adults who abuse substances usually have mood disorders • Depressed persons have some preference for stimulants and alcohol

  26. Mania • Grandiosity • Decreased need for sleep • Talkative or fast talking • Flight of ideas • Distractible • Excessive pleasure seeking • Can be brought on by stimulant use or depressant withdrawal

  27. Bipolar I and II • Both require having had at least a 2 week episode of depression and • a one week episode of mania (I) • 4 days of hypomania (II)

  28. Continuum of depression • Depression Normal Sadness/ Grieving/Blues Depression • Bipolar Manic Normal Depressed

  29. Treatment of Mood Disorders • Medications • Psychotherapy • Occupational Therapy • Exercise

  30. Anxiety Disorders • Panic Disorder • Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Social Anxiety Disorder • Phobias • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  31. Phobias • Technophobia - fear of technology • Sciophobia - fear of shadows • Decidophobia - fear of decision making • Nyctophobia - fear of nights • Topophobia - fear of performing (stage freight) • Gatophobia - fear of cats • Hydrophobia - fear of water • Spermophobia - fear of germs • Aerophobia - fear of flying • Agoraphobia - fear of open spaces • Claustrophobia - fear of enclosed spaces • Gamophobia - fear of marriage • Scholionophobia - fear of school • Pyrophobia - fear of fire

  32. Anxiety Disorders • Anxiety is the most common symptom of substance abusers and is now considered to be a cause of anxiety disorders much more often than as a self-medicating for underlying anxiety disorder • Using chemicals (cannabis) to cope with anxiety can weaken ability to use healthy mechanisms and create avoidance tendencies • Anxiety can be resolved in addiction treatment

  33. Panic Attacks • A discreet period (< 30minutes) reaching a peak within 10 minutes with 4 or more of … • Palpitations, pounding heart, or fast heart rate • Sweating • Trembling or shaking • Shortness of breath or feeling smothered • Feelings of choking • Chest pain • Nausea • Feeling dizzy, light-headed, faint, or unsteady • Fear of losing control / going crazy • Numbness • Chills or hot flashes

  34. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder • 1. Person exposed to trauma • 2. Event is persistently recurrently experienced • Intrusive memories of event • Dreams of the event • Feeling as if they are reliving the event • As intense distress or physiological reactivity when exposed to cues that resemble or symbolize the event • 3. Avoidance of stimuli and numbing responsiveness • 4. Persistent symptoms of increased arousal

  35. Anxiety Treatment • Medications preferably very short-term • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy • Trauma therapies to reprocess memories

  36. Personality Disorders (most commonly disabling) • Borderline Personality Disorder • Antisocial Personality Disorder • Avoidant Personality Disorder • Dependent Personality Disorder • Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

  37. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • Marked by repeated obsessions and or compulsions that are so severe that ehy interfere with everyday activities. • Obsessions are disturbing, intrusive thoughts, ideas or images that cause anxiety or distress • Examples are washers (fear contamination), checkers (repeatedly check things like locks, ovens, irons etc.), counters (ruled by magical thinking and superstitions, hoarders (people who can not throw things away)

  38. Therapy for Personality Disorder • Medications for symptom management • Psychotherapy

  39. Addictions • Alcohol, Heroin and other Opiate use frequently causes symptoms of depression and sometimes depressive illness. • Alcohol, and cannabis often create anxiety disorders by allowing avoidance of anxiety provoking stimuli • Cocaine addiction can resemble or create bipolar mood swings

  40. Addiction Therapies • Detox • Outpatient • Inpatient Residential • Support Recovery, Longer Term Residential • Self - Help

  41. Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa • Bulimia Nervosa • Eating Disorders NOS

  42. Anorexia Nervosa • Refusal to maintain normal body weight for age & height • Intense fear of weight gain • Disturbance in self-evaluation of body shape and size, denial of serious of underweight • Amenorrhea in postmenstrual women

  43. Bulimia Nervosa • Recurrent binge eating episodes • Recurrent purging to avoid weight gain • Binge eating and purging occur on average, at least twice a week for 3 months • Self-evaluation influenced by body shape and weight

  44. Treatment of Eating Disorders • Medical stabilization • Medication • Individual therapy • Family Therapy- several models are being researched • Nutrition Education • Team approach

  45. Schizophrenia • A disturbance involving delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and or catatonic behaviour • Delusions are false beliefs • Hallucinations can be auditory, visual or any of the 5 senses • It is also associated with a deterioration of a person’s ability to function at work, school and or socially • It may begin in late adolescence or early adulthood • Drug use may initiate this change