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2011 12 lingua inglese 1 modulo b introduction to english linguistics prof hugo bowles n.
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2011-12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo B Introduction to English Linguistics prof. Hugo Bowles PowerPoint Presentation
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2011-12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo B Introduction to English Linguistics prof. Hugo Bowles

2011-12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo B Introduction to English Linguistics prof. Hugo Bowles

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2011-12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo B Introduction to English Linguistics prof. Hugo Bowles

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  1. 2011-12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo BIntroduction to English Linguisticsprof. Hugo Bowles Lesson 7 Syntax

  2. Syntactic analysis • For your exam you need to be able to analyse a simple sentence into its component parts. The aim of this lesson is to get you from words to sentences • So we start with words and build from there

  3. Sentences • Sentences, like the morphology of individual words, can be analysed using trees to illustrate their phrase structure • In order to be able to analyse a sentence you need to understand the main grammatical categories

  4. Grammatical categories • Nouns (N) dog, cat, apple, park etc. • Determiners (Det.) a, the, this, that etc. • Verbs (V) walk, come, go • Adjectives (A) big, black, hairy etc. • Adverbs (Adv) quickly, slowly etc. • Pronouns (PRO) he, she etc. • Prepositions (P) in, on, under, over etc.

  5. From words to categories • Words have to be attached to their grammatical category dog the walks hairy park quickly in the N Det V A N Adv P Det

  6. Nos. 1, 2, 3 Juliet loves Romeo N V N

  7. … and then they have to be put in order the hairy dog walks quickly in the park Det A N V Adv P Det N

  8. From categories to phrases to sentences • words are connected to categories • categories combine to form phrases • phrases combine to form sentences What kind of phrases are there?

  9. Types of phrase • Noun phrase (NP) • Verb phrase (VP) • Prepositional phrase (PP) • Adverb phrase (AdvP) • Adjective Phrase (AP)

  10. Phrases • Each sentence contains a subject and a predicate the hairy dog walks quickly in the park

  11. Phrases • Each sentence contains a subject and a predicate the hairy dog walks quickly in the park • Syntactically these correspond to: a and a the hairy dog walks quickly in the park noun phrase verb phrase

  12. The top of the tree • So the tree for any sentence (S) should start like this: • This means that every sentence is made up of a noun phrase and a verb phrase S NP VP

  13. The bottom of the tree • What we need to do is to connect: the structure at the top of the tree TO the words of the sentence at the bottom of the tree the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  14. Connecting top and bottom • You need to start at the bottom of the tree and build more phrases on to the categories. These phrases could be: • Noun phrases • Adverb phrases • Prepositional phrases • Adjective phrases

  15. What about? • The dog ? • The park?

  16. A simple noun phrase (NP) • Determiner (Det.) + Noun (N) = Noun Phrase (NP) the dog the park NP NP Det N Det. N

  17. Noun phrase (NP) • A name is also a noun and attaches to a noun phrase Romeo NP N

  18. What about ? in the park

  19. Prepositional Phrase (PP) • Preposition + NP = Prepositional Phrase (PP) in + = the park in the park P PP NP P NP Det N Det N

  20. What about ? quickly

  21. Adverb Phrase (Adv.P) • When there is just one adverb, it attaches to an Adverb Phrase (Adv.P) quickly Adv.P Adv

  22. What about hairy

  23. Adjective Phrase (AP) • A single adjective attaches to an Adjective Phrase (AP) hairy AP A

  24. More on adjectives • Adjectives are often found in sentences as modifiers of nouns: thehairydog modifier of noun • In this case they form part of a more complex noun phrase …

  25. More complex noun phrases • … and they are analysed like this: the hairy dog NP AP Det N A

  26. Now we go back to the sentence and start to decorate the tree ………

  27. Inserting the phrases • The subject NP is easy to insert……………….……………… but the VP is more difficult the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP AP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  28. First you attach the Verb the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP AP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  29. Then you attach the AdvP the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP AP AdvP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  30. Then you attach the PP the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP PP NP AP AdvP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  31. What a complete tree looks like • a sentence divides into a noun phrase ……………….. and a verb phrase these attach to phrases or and categories categories attachto words the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP PP NP AP AdvP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  32. How to analyse the syntactic structure of a simple sentence It’s a bit like decorating a Christmas tree: • Write S NP + VP at the top • Write the words of the sentence at the bottom • Write the categories above the words • Where necessary put the categories into phrase structures (NP, Adv,P, AP, PP) • Attach the phrase structures to the main NP and VP

  33. Step 1 – write S NP+VP at the top S NP VP

  34. Step 2 – write the words at the bottom the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP

  35. Step 3 – write the categories of the words the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  36. Step 4 – put the categories into phrase structures where necessary the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP PP NP AP AdvP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  37. Step 5 – attach the phrase structures to the main NP and VP the hairy dog walks quickly in the park S NP VP PP NP AP AdvP Det A N V Adv P Det N

  38. 4. Juliet loves Romeo • Juliet loves Romeo S NP VP NP N V N

  39. 5. Romeo loves Juliet • Romeo loves Juliet S NP VP NP N V N

  40. Romeo/Juliet loves Juliet/Romeo • Juliet loves Romeo Romeo Juliet S NP VP NP N V N

  41. 6. He loves carrots • He loves carrots S NP VP NP PRO V N

  42. 7. The lamb followed Mary • The lamb followed Mary S NP VP NP Det V N N

  43. 8. Beavers build dams • Beavers build dams S NP VP NP V N N

  44. 9. The cat killed the mouse • The cat killed the mouse S NP VP NP Det V N Det N

  45. 10. Jack killed the giant • Jack killed the giant S NP VP NP V N Det N

  46. 11. She solved the mystery • She solved the mystery S NP VP NP V PRO Det N

  47. 12. The witnesses helped her • The witnesses helped her S NP VP NP DET N V PRO

  48. 13. Alice followed the rabbit • Alice followed the rabbit S NP VP NP N N V Det.

  49. 14. Alice followed the white rabbit • Alice followed the white rabbit S VP NP NP AP. N V Det. A. N

  50. 15. Alice slowly followed the white rabbit • Alice slowly followed the white rabbit S VP NP NP Adv.P AP. N Asv V Det. A. N