What to discuss? • Plagiarism in Academic Writing • Citing skills: quotation, paraphrase, and summary
Group work Read the article ‘Plagiarism in the Academic Community’ and answer the given questions on: • Definition of plagiarism • Penalties for plagiarism • 3 categories of plagiarism
Definitions • “the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or the expression of ideas (literary, artistic, musical, mechanical, etc.) of another” (Imhoof, Maurice and Herman Hudson, 1975)
Definitions • “Copying of another person’s ideas, words or work and pretend that they are your own”. ( Oxford Advanced Genie)
Definitions • “You are kidnapping or stealing someone else’s ideas or words and presenting them as if they were your own”. ( the University of Melbourne)
Definitions • “Plagiarism means using another's work without giving credit” (http://sja.ucdavis.edu/avoid.htm)
Definitions • Plagiarism is the “unacknowledged use of somebody else’s words or ideas”. (http://owl.english.purdue.edu)
Task: Decide whether the following actions in academic writing are plagiarism or not • Buying a paper from the printing service shop and handing in as your work. • Using common knowledge in your work without documenting. • Paraphrasing the source with some minor changes.
Hiring someone to write your thesis because you are so busy teaching. • Using your own experience and findings • Carelessly forgetting to include quotation marks or a reference to show whose words or ideas you are using.
Discussion • Why Asian students are more likely to plagiarize?
Cultural reasons • Confucianism appreciates your wide knowledge of others’ ideas • Community sense advocates ‘common’ use
Academic reasons • Text-based learning creates rote learners • Traditional teaching approach creates passive learners • No emphasis in proper citations in writing, both in Vietnamese and TLs
Why plagiarism bad? • You are cheating yourself by plagiarizing. • Plagiarism devalues others' original work. • Plagiarism is a serious offence in scholarship. • Plagiarism is unethical.
Punishments for plagiarism • Berne Convention • Article 2 • Protected Works: The expression “literary and artistic works” shall include every production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its expression, such as books, pamphlets and other writings; lectures, addresses, sermons and other works of the same nature; dramatic or dramatico-musical works…
Punishments for plagiarism • (6) The works mentioned in this Article shall enjoy protection in all countries of the Union. This protection shall operate for the benefit of the author and his successors in title.
Punishments for plagiarism • Postgraduate studies, CFL, VNU: • The plagiarism policy will be strictly enforced. Suspected plagiarism will be checked and cases referred to the Postgraduate Studies Department.
Common errors that could be considered plagiarism • No quotation marks around borrowed language • Paraphrase that uses the exact language or sentence structure of a source • Inaccurate or incomplete references
How to avoid unintentional plagiarism? • (1) Knowing what to acknowledge: • Three sources: (1) your independent thoughts and experiences; (2) common knowledge, the basic information people share; and (3) other people’s independent thoughts and experiences.
How to avoid unintentional plagiarism? • (2) Give credit for copied, adapted, or paraphrased material: • If you repeat another's exact words, you MUST use quotation marks and cite the source. • If you adapt a chart or paraphrase a sentence, you must still cite.
How to avoid unintentional plagiarism? • (3) Avoiding using others’ work with minor ‘cosmetic’ changes, for instance: • Using "less" for "fewer” • Reversing the order of a sentence, • Altering a spread-sheet layout.
How to avoid unintentional plagiarism? • (4) When in doubt, cite. • Better to be safe than not give credit when you should! http://sja.ucdavis.edu
Task: Detect any plagiarism (if any) in the following writing • " In research writing, sources are cited for two reasons: to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas." • In research writing, sources are cited to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas.
" In research writing, sources are cited for two reasons: to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas." • In research writing, we cite sources for a couple of reasons: to notify readers of our information sources and give credit to those from whom we have borrowed. (Hacker).
" In research writing, sources are cited for two reasons: to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas." • A researcher cites her sources to ensure her audience knows where she got her information, and to recognize and credit the original work. (Hacker, 1995: 260 )
Definition - Paraphrase To paraphrase = to restate a portion of a text with the purpose, usually, of clarifying it. • A paraphrase is about the same length as the original passage. • A paraphrase should not include any of the words from the original passage, nor should it follow the same sentence structure as the original passage, just changing vocabulary. • Paraphrased information must be accompanied by a citation, or in-text reference to the source • Failure to provide citation will be interpreted by others as plagiarism, even if you list the source in your bibliography.
Definition of Summary To summarize = to restate a portion of a text in a shortened form. • A summary should bring out the main ideas of the passage, and this means that it need not follow the same order as the original text. • The requirements of the summary are that it be clear, concise, and accurate in representing the original text. • Summarized information must be accompanied by a citation, or in-text reference to the source • Failure to provide citation will be interpreted by others as plagiarism, even if you list the source in your bibliography
Definition • To quote = to copy exactly a portion of a text, with the purpose of presenting the author's actual words
Examples Original Text "If you're coping with an illness or want to exchange views about a medical topic, you'll want to find your way to a newsgroup. Despite the name, these are not collections of news items. They are, in effect, virtual bulletin boards open to anyone who cares to participate. The messages generally consist of plain text" (Schwartz 28).
Example of Paraphrase In a recent Consumer Reports article, the author suggests finding a relevant newsgroup if you have a particular medical problem or if you want to talk with others about a medical subject. Newsgroups are online bulletin boards that are available to anyone; in spite of their name, they are not news reports. Anyone who wishes to may join in a newsgroup discussion (Schwartz 28).
Example of Attempted Paraphrase That Is Classified as Plagiarism Based on the quotation above: Whenever you are dealing with a disease or need to talk about a medical subject, you should look for a newsgroup. . . .
Example of summary Newsgroups, online discussion groups open to any participant, are a useful resource for anyone concerned about specific medical issues. (Schwartz 28).
Example of quotation People concerned about medical issues may find it helpful to look for a relevant newsgroup. Schwartz (28) points out that, "Despite the name, these are not collections of news items. They are, in effect, virtual bulletin boards open to anyone who cares to participate. "
When to quote material? • Quote passage when the author has said something in a distinctive or especially insightful or interesting way. • Quote material that supports the assertions you make in your paper. • Quote authorities who disagree with a position you are advocating or who offer alternative explanations or contradictory data.
When not to quote material? • Do not quote passage merely to fill in space • Do not quote passages as a substitute for thinking. • Do not quote passages because you do not understandthe author’s ideas well enough to paraphrase them.
How much should I quote? Consider quoting a passage from one of your sources if any of the following conditions holds: • The language of the passage is particularly elegant or powerful or memorable. • You wish to confirm the credibility of your argument by enlisting the support of an authority on your topic. • The passage is worthy of further analysis. • You wish to argue with someone else's position in considerable detail
Alternatives to quotations If an argument or a factual account from one of your sources is particularly relevant to your paper but does not deserve to be quoted verbatim, consider • paraphrasing the passage if you wish to convey the points in the passage at roughly the same level of detail as in the original • summarizing the relevant passage if you wish to sketch only the most essential points in the passage
Integrating quotations into your writing Block quotations: • Use with longer quotations. • Follow APA guidelines (see handout on APA guidelines)
Integrated quotations Introduce the quotation with appropriate verb • Precede with a coma • Employ a verb of saying that fits the overall tone of your essay
Reporting verbs • Pattern 1: reporting verb + that + subject + verb • Pattern 2: reporting verb + somebody/something + for + noun/gerund • Pattern 3: reporting verb + somebody/something + as + noun/gerund/adjective
Pair work • List the reporting verbs of the three patterns • Check your list with other pairs’ lists
Introduce a quotation without a verb • A more formal way of quoting • Precede with a colon • Run your sentence and the quotation together • Pick out only certain words to quote. • There are other ways to begin quotations: Eg.In the words of X, . . . According to X, . . . In X's view, . . . Vary the way you introduce quotations to avoid sounding monotonous. But never sacrifice precision of phrasing for the sake of variety
Discussion When should I paraphrase, and when should I summarize?
Consider relying on either tool when an idea from one of your sources is important to your essay but the wording is not. • You should be guided in your choice of which tool to use by considerations of space. • But above all, think about how much of the detail from your source is relevant to your argument. If all your reader needs to know is the bare bones, then summarize. • Ultimately, be sure not to rely too heavily on either paraphrase or summary. Your ideas are what matter most
How to write a paraphrase? • Read, reread, and annotate the material. • Change words in the passage. • Change the verbs • Change the sentence structure in the passage. • Combine sentences found in the source text. • Unpack sentences found in the source text.