PoLLutioN(water & air pollution) Kelompok2: 1. ArifFajarUtomo (L2C008118) 2. RohmatFigiArto (L2C008148)
Pollution • Pollution is contaminant that comes to the environment, causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. • A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes environment • Pollutants the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring.
Form of Pollution • Major form of pollution: air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, littering, radioactive contamination, noise pollution, light pollution, visual pollution, and thermal pollution.
Water Pollution • Water Pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, river, ocean, and groundwater, which can be harmful to organisms and plants that live in these water bodies. • Water Pollution Categories: a. Point source pollution. - Point source pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete conveyance, such as a pipe or ditch. - Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain. b. Non-point source pollution (NPS) - NPS pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source
NPS pollution is often a cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area, ex: runoff in storm water. c. Groundwater pollution - Ground water pollution is not as easily classified as surface water pollution,may not directly affect surface water bodies, and the distinction of point vs. nonpoint source may be irrelevant. • For example, a spill of a chemical contaminant on soil, located away from a surface water body, may not necessarily create point source or non-point source pollution, but nonetheless may contaminate the aquifer below. • Causes of water pollution The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemical, phatogen, and physical or sensory changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration.
a. Pathogens High levels of pathogens may result from inadequately treated sewage discharges , may also be caused by poorly-managed livestock operations. b. Chemical and other contaminants Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. 1. Organic water pollutants include: Such as: detergent, Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water, such as chloroform, food processing waste, insecticides and herbicides, petroleum, Volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 2. Inorganic water pollutants include: Acidity caused by industrial discharges,ammonia from food processing waste, chemical waste as industrial by-products,heavy metals, Silt (sediment)
3. Macroscopic pollution Macroscopic pollution is large visible items polluting the water, ex: Trash (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste),nurdles, small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets ,shipwrecks, large derelict ships • Kind of water pollution • Eutrophication - Eutrophication is an increase in chemical nutrients — compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus — in an ecosystem, and may occur on land or in water. • Eutrophication is frequently a result of nutrient pollution, such as the release of sewage effluent, urban stormwater run-off, and run-off carrying excess fertilizers into natural waters
Eutrophicationgenerally promotes excessive plant growth and decay, favors certain weedy species over others that disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen in the water, needed for fish and shellfish to survive. • Human activities can accelerate the rate at which nutrients enter ecosystems. Runoff from agriculture and development, pollution from septic systems and sewers, and other human-related activities increase the flux of both inorganic nutrients and organic substances into terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems. 2. Oil spill - Oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution, often occurs in sea/ocean. - The oil damage the environment and the creatures inside, oil can reduce mammals and birds insulation abilities , irritate them. Some animals trapped by the oil in the sea and die.
3. Marine Litter - Marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally become afloat in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway. - This thing is quite dangerous; Many animals that live on or in the sea consume flotsam by mistake, as it often looks similar to their natural prey; Toxic additives used in the manufacture of plastic materials can leach out into their surroundings when exposed to water; some rare animals (dolphins, sea turtles, shark) can be trapped in a “ghost trap”,an abandoned fishing net
Air Pollution • Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulatmatter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. • Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made • Sources: classified into 2: a. Antrophogenic Sources (human activities) “Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc.
another example: Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management;Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents; Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, rocketry b. Natural Sources ex: Dust from natural sources Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals; Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust; Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires; Volcanic activity. • Kind of Air Pollution a. Acid Rain - Acid rain is rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic,is mostly caused by human emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds which react in the atmosphere to produce acids.
- It has harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. In surface water, it can change the pH become lower/higher (At pHs lower than 5 most fish eggs will not hatch and lower pHs can kill adult fish), soil biology and chemistry can be seriously damaged by acid rain, some microbes are unable to tolerate changes to low pHs and are killed, and else. b. Smog - Smog is a kind of air pollution that produced by burning process. - Smog is a problem in a number of cities and continues to harm human health.Ground-level ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are especially harmful for senior citizens, children, and others. - Ex natural causes of smog: An erupting volcano can also emit high levels of sulfur dioxide, creating volcanic smog, or fog.
Solutions • To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. • In developed countries, the primary focus of legislation and efforts to curb water pollution for the past several decades was first aimed at point sources • To prevent eutrophication, humans should be aware that natural runoff (which causes algal blooms in the wild). And if it already happened, we can clean the water (9% removal efficient) • In oil spills, the only way is clean the oil from the sea/bay, even tough it take quiet a long time. • In marine litter, we can collect and remove marine (or riverine) debris, by hand or other technique.
6. People should do conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bioethanol, biodiesel, or conversion to electric vehicles) to reduce the air pollution. 7. Acid Rain: In the United States, many coal-burning power plants use Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove sulfur-containing gases from their stack gases.In some areas the sulfates are sold to chemical companies as gypsum when the purity of calcium sulfate is highIn others, they are placed in landfill. 8. To reduce smog, many countries now introducing cleaner fuels.