District 7 Fall Protection Outreach February 19, 2004 1:00 p.m. EST
Remember - Safety is a Value! • WHY ARE WE HERE TODAY? • To Promote Fall Protection Safety Awareness • To Provide Best Practices On Fall Protection GOAL - Send Every Miner Home Safe and Healthy at the End of Every Shift!!!
Code of Federal Regulations: 77.1710 Protective Clothing; requirements.Each employee working in a surface coal mine or in the surface work areas of an underground coal mine shall be required to wear protective clothing and devices as indicated below: (g)Safety belts and lines where there is a danger of falling; a second person shall tend the lifeline when bins, tanks or other dangerous areas are entered.
FALL PROTECTION • OSHA Recommends Fall Protection At Heights Greater Than 6 Feet
Slips and falls of mining personnel are a major cause of accidents in the mining industry. Since 1983, an average of 6.9 workers per year have been killed while 3,191 workers per year have required medical attention for non-fatal injuries due to slips and falls at mine sites.
Since 1995, forty-three workers have died in "fall-of-person" accidents at mining operations. Several of the fatalities occurred when the fall height was 10 feet or less. In most of these accidents workers fell off mobile equipment.
SLIP AND FALL FATAL ACCIDENTS Jan. 1, 1993 to PRESENT
February 03, 2004. The victim was operating an aerial boom truck, inside the bucket, to dismantle a shop building. The victim and two other employees were using the boom of the bucket truck to lift up a wooden 4X6 post by placing one end of the chain on the post and the other on the aerial boom of the truck. The post was buried in the ground with concrete. The victim was thrown out of the bucket when the post suddenly released from the ground.
June 9, 2003, a 49-year old supervisor with 29 years mining experience was fatally injured when he was thrown from the elevated bucket of a Simon-Telect 42-foot aerial bucket truck. The victim and two other miners were dismantling a de-energized electrical substation on the surface area of an underground mine. To secure a steel "I-Beam" structure, a nylon rope was attached between the bucket of the aerial lift and the steel structure. After the steel structure was disconnected from the substation, the rope broke, causing the aerial bucket to shift suddenly, throwing the victim out of the bucket. The victim fell 28 feet 11 inches to the ground.
On Thursday, February 20, 2003, a 44-year old preparation plant operator with 25 years of total experience fell approximately 19 feet through a four-foot square opening in the upper level flooring at a conveyor drive station onto a conveyor tail pulley at a lower level of a surface facility. The flooring had been removed to allow materials to be lowered for construction work. The opening had been protected with nylon rope and flagging. The victim, a plant foreman, was aware of the work being performed. He was taken to the hospital for emergency medical treatment and died of his injuries on Tuesday, February 25, 2003.
August 29, 2001 An accident occurred which resulted in fatal injuries to a contract employee at the Coal Preparation Plant. An ironworker/welder was performing work on the 5th floor of the plant when a sixteen (16) by four (4) foot section of the concrete floor from which he was working collapsed, causing the miner to fall thirty four (34) feet to the 2nd floor. Demolition of existing structure to install upgraded equipment was being performed in preparation to connect the structural beams for a new addition to the plant when the accident occurred. 6th floor view looking down to the 2nd floor 2nd floor landing area
On November 27, 2001, at approximately 8:15 PM, an accident occurred which resulted in fatal injuries to the Plant Operator at the coal preparation plant. The plant operator was working on the sixth floor of the preparation plant with a co-worker, attempting to hang a chain hoist to a hoist track. They were attempting to attach the hoist to the hoist track in an open doorway. One safety bar was installed across the doorway and while lifting the hoist, it was dislodged. While attempting to attach the hoist, it was dropped and subsequently the victim slipped and fell approximately 101 feet to the ground
Thursday, March 2, 2000, at 10:30 a.m., a fatal fall of person accident claimed the life of a 47-year-old electrical contractor. The accident occurred in the Preparation Plant on top of the raw coal classifying cyclone sump where the victim was attempting to remove electrical conduit that had been previously installed over the operating sump. The cyclone was covered with a 10 gauge perforated metal covering. Although there were no eyewitnesses to the accident, the victim apparently stood on the metal covering while he was performing this work. The metal covering gave way and the victim fell through the covering into the operating raw coal classifying cyclone sump which resulted in fatal injuries.
CAUSES OF 15 FATALS1996 TO PRESENT • STRUCTURAL FAILURE – 4 • UNCOVERED OPENING IN FLOOR - 3 • FALLING OFF EQUIPMENT - 2 • MISUSE OF EQUIPMENT - 2 • INADEQUATE GUARDING - 2 • FALLING OFF HIGHWALL - 1 • GUARDING NOT SECURED - 1
Fall Protection • Hierarchy of fall protection: • 1st - Eliminate fall hazards • Erect railings, barriers, barricades, walls to prevent entry into fall zone • 2nd - Restrain - prevent falls by keeping person away from edge of fall zone • Wear harnesses (best practice) or body belts (OK) attached to life lines or lanyards to keep away from the edge of the fall zone
Hierarchy of fall protection (cont): • 3rd - Use fall arrest systems when work must be performed in the fall zone • Limits free fall hazard to 6’ maximum • Wear full body harness attached by energy absorbing lanyard to a secure anchorage. Anchorage should be as high as possible to limit free fall • Body belts and chest harnesses are not designed for fall arrest • 4th - Use work positioning or personnel riding system - may be used, when applicable, to work performed in the fall zone • Supports a worker in the fall zone. Limits free fall hazard to 2’ maximum • Utilizes full body harness & positioning lanyards. Use positioning systems in conjunction with a back-up fall arrest system, not in lieu of fall arrest
Fall Arrest Systems 3 Components: Lanyard, Anchorage & Full Body Harness • Lanyard - connects the full body harness to an anchorage or lifeline • 5000 pound breaking strength, minimum • May include deceleration device or self-retracting mechanism to limit free fall • Snap hooks connect lanyard to anchorage. They have a keeper & locking mechanism to prevent unintended opening
Anchorage - a secure point of attachment • Best practice: use an anchorage that has been engineered & certified • Anchorage static load capacity (minimum recommended, per person) • 3600 pounds, if certified; 5000 pounds, if not certified • Locate at a height that limits free fall to 6 feet maximum • Locate anchorage so that if a fall occurs, a falling worker will not strike a lower level or obstruction below. Allow for stretching of the harness and lanyard, and extension of a deceleration device.
Fall Arrest:Wear a Full Body HarnessA basic body belt and line system may not be sufficient protection! Use of a body belt or chest harness is very risky where a free fall danger exists!
Full body harness use is the Best Practiceto arrest a fall • Full body harness distributes fall arresting force better, and over more & stronger body parts • Chest harness can paralyze fall victim’s arms or prevent breathing • Body belt exerts too much force on stomach & other internal organs when arresting a fall, and during suspension time thereafter • Suspension in a body belt affects blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing ability & rate • Tolerable suspension time in a belt may be less than two (2) minutes • Risk of spinal injury is higher with body belts when arresting a fall • Person can slip out of a belt or chest harness - after a fall, and before rescue
Fall Arrest Training Train everyone who works at height • Recognition of fall hazards • Procedures to minimize fall hazards & fall potential • Use & limits of fall arrest & fall protection systems & equipment • Do not work alone when working at height • Inspect harness for damage before each use • Care and maintenance of harness/connecting devices • Suspension induced shock: cause & prevention • Procedures in event of fall • For self • For co-worker • Rescue plan, equipment & implementation
COAL MINE FATALITY - On August 13, 2002 at approximately 3:00 a.m., a 66-year-old highwall drill operator was fatally injured when he fell twenty-three feet off the edge of a highwall. The victim was walking from his truck along the drill bench to his highwall drill in dark and foggy conditions when the accident occurred. The victim was able to call for help using a cell phone. The victim was rescued, however, he later expired as a result of injuries.
Best Practices • Provide and use appropriate lighting in work areas after dark. • Establish and use designated travel ways to travel to and from work areas. • Always be aware of your surroundings and any hazards that may be present.
METAL/NONMETAL MINE FATALITY - On August 9, 2003, a 40-year-old maintenance man, with 5 months mining experience, was fatally injured at a surface milling operation that processes diatomaceous earth. The victim was tracking a water line, walked out onto the roof of a building, and fell through a sky light, 29 feet to a concrete floor below.
METAL/NONMETAL MINE FATALITY - On April 27, 1997, a truck driver (contractor employee) with 30 years of mining experience was killed at a lime plant. The employee parked his truck at the wash platform and climbed on top of the tank trailer to hose it off. A safety belt and line were not used and the victim fell 11 feet to the ground. He died from the sustained head injuries.
Best Practices • Equip load out facilities with fall prevention/protection • Require fall prevention/protection equipment to be used at load outs • Provide fall prevention/protection for truckers when tarping trucks (may require access platforms/auto tarping) • Train drivers in the proper methods to get on and off trucks • Establish safe methods/procedures to inspect trucks • Ensure proper loading of material to eliminate the need for a driver to re-distribute loads
MSHA recommends using the following safety equipment and practices when working from platforms suspended by Cranes or Derricks: • Use a full body harness with the lanyard secured to the suspended platform or above the crane hook or ball. • Inspect the crane or derrick prior to suspending a work platform. This should include inspection of the wire rope, hoist drum brakes, boom and other mechanical and rigging equipment vital to the safe operation of the crane or derrick. • Use a work platform approved by a qualified engineer and rigging approved by a qualified person. • The platform should be equipped with an access gate. The access gate should swing inward, and should be equipped with a positive locking latch.
Platform perimeter protection should consist of: • a top rail approximately 42 inches above the floor, • a toeboard at least 4 inches high, and • a midrail approximately halfway between the top rail and the toeboard. • The platform is to be positively locked to the load block or hook in a manner that prevents accidental disengagement. • For more info. see American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A10.28-Safety Requirements for Work Platforms Suspended from Cranes or Derricks
http:/www.msha.gov/S&HINFO/SFETY/HIGHWALL/highwalloct99.ppt Fall Prevention on Highwalls Safe Practices Near a Highwall Crest
Fall Prevention Priorities • Determine Fall Hazard Zone: • No Physical Barrier and • 6 Feet or Less From Stable Crest or • 6 Feet or Less From Unstable Ground or Footing • Use Fall Prevention …if NOT POSSIBLE... • Use Fall Arrest
Fall Prevention • Use Physical Barriers • Create Visual Warnings With Physical Barriers • Persons in Fall Hazard Zone Should Use: • Safety Belts or Harness • Lanyard Should Be Shorter Than Distance From Crest to Tie off Point
Fall Arrest (The LAST Resort) • Harness Preferred • Tie off to Rear D-ring • Use Decelerating or Shock Absorbing Lanyard When You Can Fall Over the Edge
Tie Off Anchorage • Fall Prevention • Anchorage Should Hold at Least 3 Times the Weight of the Persons Attached • T-bars • Mobile Equipment • Fall Arrest • Anchorage Should Hold at Least 5,000 Pounds Per Person Attached • Mobile Equipment
Equipment Tie Off Procedures • Lockout and Tagout Equipment • Park in Safe Location • Parallel to Face if Possible except drills • On Stable Ground • Use Secure Anchorage Point • Avoid Lanyard Entanglements and Damage
Lockout/tagout • Transmission in “Park” or In Gear • Tied off Person has Ignition Key • Parking Brake Engaged • Steering Wheel or Clutch Lock Installed • Wheels Chocked
Anchoring for Drillers • Drillers should use caution when tying off to a drill. Is there a better alternative? • Never position a drill parallel to the highwall • If you must tie off to a drill, it should be: • Properly locked/tagged out OR • Jacks or outriggers extended
Personal Fall Protection Equipment • Use Equipment That Meets ANSI Z359.1 and A10.14 Standards, “Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards & Lifelines” • Train Employees in the Use of: • Harnesses • Belts • Lanyards • Clips, Rings, and Other Accessories • Use and Maintain According to Manufacturer’s Instructions • Inspect Equipment Before Each Use
SUMMARY • Promote Fall Protection Safety Awareness • Provide Best Practices on Fall Protection • 6 Feet Or Higher Tie Off!!! • Harness Is Preferred To A Belt • Use 100% Tie Off Rule i.e. Keep Lanyard Attached To Substantial Anchorage At All Times GOAL - Send Every Miner Home Safe and Healthy at the End of Every Shift!!!
FALL PROTECTION OUTREACH February 23, 2004 - Safety Talks - Best Practices - All Mines