geographic analysis and exploration in the south central united states n.
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Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States

Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States

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Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States

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  1. Geographic Analysis and Exploration in the South Central United States Mark P. Widrlechner USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Ames, IA

  2. Acknowledgments • ISU Media Graphics (Rex Heer) for moisture balance map • Spatial Climate Analysis Service - Oregon State University for precipitation maps • Cris Nass and Robert Stebbins for help with scanning

  3. Outline of Presentation • Overview • Applying geographic factors to the South Central US • Plants and potential sites

  4. Overview • Location-specific factors influencing the adaptation of woody plants in the Midwest • Photoperiod regimen • Winter injury • Moisture balance • Soil type

  5. Photoperiod Regimen • Key factor to signal growth and the cessation of growth • Directly correlated with latitude • Plants evolve in response to the interaction of photoperiod and correlated events

  6. Winter Injury • Three main aspects • Timing of hardening • Mid-winter low temperature survival • Timing of dehardening • Also, interaction with moisture conditions, especially for evergreens • USDA Hardiness Zones (average annual minimum temperature) are an easily obtainable surrogate (especially for regions resembling the target environment)

  7. Moisture Balance • Perhaps as important as winter hardiness (especially in low maintenance situations) • Widrlechner et al. (1992) J. Environ. Hort. 10: 192-198 and J. Environ. Hort. 16: 27-32. • Can visualize based on the Moisture Index of Mather and Yoshioka: Im = 100((mean annual precipitation/potential evapotranspiration)-1)

  8. From Widrlechner (1999) "A Zone Map for Mean Annual Moisture Balance in the North Central United States," Landscape Plant News 10(2): 10-14.

  9. Valuable Soil Types • pH (neutral to alkaline) • High Ca or Na content • Relatively poor drainage • Thin (for drought tolerance)

  10. Applying this Approach to the South Central United States • Latitude (35 to 40° North) • USDA Hardiness Zones (6a and b)

  11. Resulting Region • Southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma on the west • Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee on the east

  12. Adding the Moisture Balance Criterion • Areas in the western two-thirds of Kansas and Oklahoma have negative moisture balances (too dry) • Kentucky and Tennessee have high positive moisture balances (too wet) • Parts of eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, Missouri, northwestern Arkansas, and southern Illinois have appropriate moisture balances (Im between 0 and 40)

  13. Working with the Moisture Balance Criterion • In areas that are too dry, target extremely wet sites along rivers, lakes, springs and significant north-facing slopes • In areas that are too wet, target limestone barrens and other drought-prone sites • In areas that are a good match, one can be broader in collecting

  14. Too dry Im < 0 0 to 20 20 to 40 Too wet Im > 40

  15. Can we find the “right” soils in this region? • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous or saline soils • Thin soils • Poorly draining soils

  16. Can we find interesting woody plant populations? • Plants adapted to appropriate soils • Species reaching the northwest edge of their native ranges • Endemic species • Species with attractive aesthetic characteristics

  17. Oklahoma Soils • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils • Apperson, Catoosa, Foraker, Grainola, Labette, Lenapah, Mayes, Newtonia, Summit (mostly silty clay loams) • Thin soils • Shidler, Sogn, Talpa (mixed with limestone) • Poorly drained soils • Choska, Latanier, Lela, Miller, Osage, Wynona (clays)

  18. Oklahoma Plants • John E. Williams (1973) Atlas of the woody plants of Oklahoma (QK 155 W55 1973) • Forrest L. Johnson and Bruce W. Hoagland (1999) Catalog of the Woody Plants of Oklahoma

  19. Arkansas Soils • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils • Clareson, Mayes, Newtonia, Summit silt loams and silt clays • Thin and rocky soils • Arkana, Elsah, Moko, Sogn, Ventris mostly stony silt loams (often with rock outcrops) • Alluvial soils • Razort silt loam

  20. Arkansas Plants • Gary E. Tucker (1976) Guide to the woody flora of Arkansas (QK 153 .T84 1976) • Arkansas Biodiversity – The Vascular Flora

  21. Missouri Soils • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils (rocky or thin) • Blueye, Brussels, Cedargap, Gasconade, Hercules, Knobby, Moko • Rock outcrops • Dolomite and other non-cherty limestones • Poorly drained soils • Gasconade, Snead

  22. Missouri Plants • Julian Steyermark (1963) Flora of Missouri (being revised and updated by George Yatskievych)

  23. Kansas Soils • Neutral to alkaline, calcareous soils • Apperson, Catoosa, Kenoma silt loam • Thin and rocky soils • Shidler, Sogn silty and rocky clay loam • Poorly drained soils • Clime, Lanton, Osage, Verdigris, Zaar silty loam and silty clay

  24. Kansas Plants • H.A. Stephens (1973) Woody Plants of the North Central Plains • Great Plains Flora Association (1977) Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains

  25. Illinois Soils • Neutral to alkaline, some calcareous soils • Bold silt loam, La Hogue loam, Hurst, Sable and Virden silty clay loam • Upland natric (with sodium) soils • Darmstadt, Grantfork, Huey, and Piasa silt loams and silty clay loams • Thin soils • Rare, isolated limestone outcrops in Jackson Co. • Alluvial soils • Ambraw, Beaucoup, Birds, Darwin, Dupo, Lawson, McFain, Nameoki, Tice, Titus, Wakeland

  26. Illinois Plants • Works by Robert Mohlenbrock • Series on the Flowering Plants of Illinois • 2002 edition of the Vascular Flora of Illinois • Mohlenbrock and Ladd (1978) Distribution of Illinois Vascular Plants • Mohlenbrock and Voigt (1959) A Flora of Southern Illinois

  27. Some Potential Target Sites • OK-KS • E ½ of Kay Co., W ½ of Osage Co., W ½ of Chautauqua Co., and all of Cowley Co. • Much of Rogers Co., W Craig Co., E Nowata Co., much of Labette Co., and E Montgomery Co. • Mayes Co. (W side of Lake Hudson and SW of Locust Grove)

  28. More Potential Target Sites • AR-MO • W edge of Fulton Co., N ½ of Baxter, Marion, and Boone Cos., SE ¼ of Taney Co., and possibly S ½ of Ozark Co. • W 2/3 of Carroll Co., SE ¼ of Barry Co., and small parts of adjacent Benton and Madison Cos.

  29. More Potential Target Sites • MO-IL • Mississippi floodplain from Perry Co. north towards St. Louis and Jackson to Monroe Cos. ( + limestone outcrops in Jackson Co.) • Lower Kaskaskia River and tributaries • Natric soils in E ½ of Madison, Bond, and Clinton Cos. and near Hecker in Randolph and St. Clair Cos.

  30. And now a few maps…