Introduction to Classroom Management ACED 4800 Student Teaching Seminar Web-Based Training: Section I Developed by Iris Ellis
Important Topics • Need for classroom management • Definitions • Student needs that affect behavior • Trends in classroom management
Is There a Need? • In the 1999 Gallup Poll, “Lack of discipline/more control” was rated as the biggest problem facing public schools.” • 47% of all teenagers stated their schools were becoming more violent. • Phi Delta Kappa polled teachers and reported that 50% felt that talking back to and disobeying teachers occurred frequently. • Cotton 1992 found that nearly half of classroom time involves activities other than instruction.
How about your classroom or laboratory?
Definitions Classroom Management: The process of establishing and maintaining an effective learning environment. Successful teachers place more emphasis on classroom management than on their roles as authority figures or disciplinarians.
Discipline: Training that is expected to produce a specified character or pattern of behavior. Controlled behavior. Rules: A principle of conduct observed by members of a group. Definitions
Definitions A Good Website For Lots of Great Information on Classroom Management is http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/manage/rules.html
Definitions • Procedures: A set of established methods for conducting the affairs of a business or classroom. • Climate: A prevailing condition in human affairs. • Classrooms that have a climate of competitiveness, hostility, and alienation cause anxiety and discomfort and do not facilitate the intellectual development of many students. • Classrooms in which students and teachers support one another facilitate the development of self-esteem.
Student Needs • Maslow • Suggests that there is a hierarchy of basic human needs. • Lower-level needs generally take precedence over higher-order needs. • People are basically good and that they have an innate need to be competent and accepted. • Unproductive behavior is not an indication of a bad child but rather as a reaction to the frustration of basic needs not being met.
Maslow • 1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.; • 2) Safety/security: out of danger; • 3) Belongingness and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; • 4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition.
Student Needs • Topper provided a list based on research and interviews with students. • Friends who care for you • Fun and challenging things to do • Having choices and learning how to make choices • Physical well-being • Status and a “cool” reputation • Unconditional love, someone who will always be your advocate
Student Needs • Lipsitz wrote extensively on the needs of early adolescents in the school environment. • Diversity • Opportunities for self-exploration and self-definition • Meaningful participation in school and community • Positive social interaction with peers and adults • Physical Activity • Competence and achievement • Structure and clear limits
Major Trends/Theories • The Counseling Approach (1960 – 1970) • Emphasis on discipline • Teacher training focused on what to do AFTER students misbehaved • William Glasser developed “reality therapy” • Based on the belief that young people need caring professionals • Young people need help taking responsibility for their behavior and help developing a plan aimed at altering their unproductive conduct
Major Trends/Theories • Behavioristic Methods (1970 – 1980) • The focus of classroom discipline moved in the direction of teacher control. • Teachers were taught to ignore inappropriate behavior while reinforcing appropriate behavior • Canter presented Assertive Discipline. • Teachers learned to state clear general behavioral expectations • And, to teach students how to behave properly
Major Trends/Theories • Lee and Marlene Canter’s Assertive Discipline, continued • Teachers must model and directly teach proper behavior. • Negative consequences are penalties teachers invoke when students violate class expectations. • Three types of teachers • Hostile • Nonassertive • Assertive
Major Trends/Theories • Teacher-Effectiveness Research (1970s) • Emphasized not what teachers did in response to misbehavior but how teachers prevented or contributed to students’ misbehavior. • Focused on three sets of teacher behavior: • Organizing & managing activities • Presenting instructional material • Teacher-student relationships
Major Trends/Theories • Integration of Approaches • The behavioral tradition has been characterized by adding the following to teacher training • Beginning the school year • Working with parents • Helping students with homework • Brophy 1996, highlighted the blending of teacher effectiveness research with the emphasis on creating caring communities of support.
Conclusion • Teachers need to continually upgrade their skills in motivating and managing students. • Research in classroom management has expanded dramatically during the past twenty years. • In other words, there are no easy answers to all problems we will encounter.
Instructions: • Return to the Classroom Management Webpage • Continue with Step 2, the activity • Good luck!