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Nose Ring Application

Nose Ring Application. Nose Ring Application. Nose Ring Application. Nose Ring Application. Nose Ring Application. Diseases of the Forestomachs. M. S. Gill, D.V.M., M.S. Ruminant Carbohydrate Engorgement. Grain overload Lactic acidosis Carbohydrate intoxication Grain engorgement

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Nose Ring Application

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  1. Nose Ring Application

  2. Nose Ring Application

  3. Nose Ring Application

  4. Nose Ring Application

  5. Nose Ring Application

  6. Diseases of the Forestomachs M. S. Gill, D.V.M., M.S.

  7. Ruminant Carbohydrate Engorgement • Grain overload • Lactic acidosis • Carbohydrate intoxication • Grain engorgement • Founder

  8. History • Access to highly fermentable feedstuffs • by unaccustomed animals, or • in larger than normal amounts • May involve several animals in herd • Rapid clinical course

  9. Clinical findings • Abdominal pain • Dehydration (6-12 %) • Diarrhea – fluid, fetid • Splashy rumen, bloat • Depression • Lameness • Scleral injection

  10. Clinical findings • Elevated temp initially, may be subnormal when presented • HR = 80-140 bpm • RR elevated (blow off CO2) • Rumen fluid analysis • pH < 5 • sour odor • protozoa dead, predominance of gram +

  11. Clinical findings • Metabolic acidosis • PCV • protein • Elevated BUN, creatinine, phosphorous • Increased anion gap • Decreased calcium

  12. Pathogenesis • Excess CHO ingestion, VFAs, rumen pH, rumen motility, Strep bovis proliferates producing lactic acid, further pH (4-5) • Acid resistant Lactobacillus spp. proliferate producing lactic acid

  13. Pathogenesis • Lactic acid accumulation in the rumen osmolarity of the rumen fluid drawing more body water into the rumen (creates the “splashy rumen”) • Loss of body water causes dehydration contributing to acidosis • Lactic acid is absorbed from rumen as well as from small intestine & profound lactic acidosis develops

  14. Pathogenesis • Acidic rumen pH damages mucosal surfaces in the forestomachs & intestine • Blood vessels thrombose & sections of rumen mucosa & submucosa slough allowing bacteria to invade • Bacteria travel to liver via portal circulation & cause liver abscesses • Mycotic ruminitis may develop

  15. Pathogenesis • Histamine levels increase • Ethanol, methanol, tyramine, tryptamine production contribute to CNS depression • Thiaminase production may result in development of polio • Death of Gram – bacteria can cause endotoxin release

  16. What feeds can cause carbohydrate engorgement? • Cereal grains • Industrial byproducts (brewers grains, sugars) • Fruits • Tubers (potatoes, sugar beets)

  17. What feeds can cause carbohydrate engorgement? • Finely ground feeds with large surface area promote rapid fermentation • Hay and grass are are not highly fermentable due to cellulose and large particle size • Corn silage usually not a problem because much of CHO already reduced to VFAs in ensiling process and also due to large particle size

  18. Diagnosis • History • Clinical signs and clinical findings • Rumen fluid analysis • CBC, chem panel, blood gas

  19. Therapy • Remove rumen contents • Kingman tube • Rumenotomy • Ice water administration • Procaine pen G (10 million IU, P.O.)

  20. Therapy • Fluid and electrolyte replacement IV • Anti-inflammatory agents –flunixin meglumine (Banamine) • Antibiotics • Antimycotic therapy • Rumen transfaunation • Thiamine • B-complex vitamins

  21. Client education • Make dietary changes very gradually • Addition of antibiotics, HCO3-, and ionophore antibiotics to the feed have been beneficial but do not replace good management • Rumen adaptation may take 6 weeks

  22. Rumenotomy

  23. Rumenotomy

  24. Rumenotomy

  25. Rumenotomy

  26. Rumenotomy

  27. Rumenotomy

  28. Rumenotomy

  29. Rumen tympany (bloat) • Gas production is a normal occurrence during rumen fermentation • Bloat occurs if eructation is prevented for any reason

  30. Clinical findings • Distended left paralumbar fossa • Discomfort (grunting, colic) • Open-mouth breathing • Anorexia • Salivation • Anxious • Depressed terminally • Sudden death

  31. Types of bloat • Primary • Eructation normal but gas cannot be expelled • frothy bloat – legumes or grain (Strep bovis) • Secondary • Failure of eructation • esophageal FB’s • vagus indigestion • positional • hypocalcemia • pharyngitis

  32. Diagnosis • History • Clinical findings

  33. THERAPY • Free gas bloat • Pass a stomach tube (carefully) either nasogastric or orogastric • If positional, roll cow into sternal recumbency • Force exercise • If hypocalcemia, administer calcium • Rumen stimulents • Rumen trocharization for emergencies only

  34. THERAPY • Frothy bloat • Reduce surface tension • Poloxalene – 2 oz. • Household detergent (Tide 2-3 oz.) • Mineral oil • Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS) *All of the above reduce surface tension allowing consolidation of tiny bubbles into a free gas bloat which can be eructated or relieved via tube

  35. THERAPY • Chronic bloat – typically free gas bloat associated with high grain diets that may cause a permanent shift in microflora • Increase fiber in diet & reduce grain • Rumen transfaunation • Temporary rumenostomy in severe cases • May be 2° to another problem such as vagus indigestion

  36. Rumen tympany (bloat)

  37. Rumen tympany (bloat)

  38. Rumenostomy

  39. Client education • Slow adaptation to grain • Limit legume grazing • Poloxalene in feed, molasses, salt or block • Maintain sufficient long stem hay (fiber) in ration to stimulate good rumen motility

  40. Rumenitis, rumen parakeratosis, chronic rumen acidosis • Long-term ingestion of high grain, low roughage diet • Poor appetite • Poor weight gain • Chronic laminitis

  41. Rumenitis, rumen parakeratosis, chronic rumen acidosis • Clinical findings • Hypomotile rumen • Elevated liver enzymes • Rumen protozoa, gram + bacteria

  42. Rumenitis, rumen parakeratosis, chronic rumen acidosis • Chronic exposure to high grain diet • Low rumen pH (5.0-5.5) • Increased propionic & butyric acid which stimulates proliferation of rumen papillae epithelium and even parakeratosis • Fine particle size, less cud chewing, less saliva buffering rumen contents • Damage to rumen leads to liver abscesses

  43. Rumenitis, rumen parakeratosis, chronic rumen acidosis • Treatment includes increasing proportion of long stem hay in the diet

  44. Vagus indigestion syndrome • Motor disturbances which impair passage of ingesta from the reticulorumen and/or abomasum into the lower GI tract

  45. Vagus indigestion syndrome • “Vague” signs • Slow loss of production • Slow weight loss • Poor appetite • Scant, pasty feces • Abdominal enlargement - “papple” shape • Rumen hyper motility, bradycardia

  46. Vagus indigestion syndrome

  47. Vagus indigestion syndrome • Classification: • Lesions anterior to cardia • Lesions at the cardia • Lesions at the reticulum • Lesions distal to the reticulum

  48. Vagus indigestion syndrome • Treatment involves correction of underlying problem • Lymphosarcoma hopeless • Rumen lavage • Rumenotomy to remove contents & ‘shrink’ rumen or to treat reticular abscesses

  49. Vagus indigestion syndrome

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