Plans and Planning Plan: A detailed scheme, program, or method worked out beforehand for the accomplishment of an objective.
Types of Plans • Financial • Wedding • Event • Estate • Military • Kitchen
Definition • Planning: The process of preparing a detailed scheme……..to accomplish an objective. • Planning is future-oriented and comprehensive. • It seeks to link knowledge and action in ways that improve the quality of public and private development decisions affecting people and places. • Planning embraces visionary and utopian thinking, yet also recognizes that the implementation of plans requires the reconciliation of present realities.
Purpose of Urban Planning • Promote the public good; • Help meet human needs in a manner that enhances the quality and distribution of resources in the physical, social and economic environment; and • Advocate an open, informed and inclusive public decision making process to reach rational decisions.
History • Lake Dwellers • Rome • Paris • Barcelona • Washington, DC • Chicago, IL
Traditional Themes • Land Use • Environment • Transportation • Economic Development • Housing • Infrastructure
Early Approaches • Dealt largely with how to create a healthy, attractive, efficient, and safe community. • Focused on forms, patterns, locations, and interrelationships of streets, public and private building sites, parks and recreation areas, shopping and industrial districts, etc. • Explored closely related legal and social issues like public control of land use and building height, bulk, and housing standards.
Modern Approaches • Embraces virtually all aspects of urban public administration: • Environmental protection • Economic development • Crime prevention • Conflict resolution • Prevention of gender, racial, ethnic, and age discrimination
Current Examples • Portland, OR • Boulder, CO • Teton County, WY • Davis, CA
Traditional Planning Process • Rational Planning • Applies rational decisionmaking to planning process • Typical elements: • goal setting, • Identification of policy alternatives, • Evaluation of means against ends, and • Implementation of decisions with feedback loops and repetition of steps
Rational Planning Process • Formulation of goals and objectives • Identification and design of major alternatives • Prediction of consequences of each alternative • Evaluation of consequences in relation to desired objectives and values • Decision based on information provided in the preceding steps • Implementation of decision • Feedback and assessment of results
Requirements for Rational Planning • Well defined problem • Alternatives to consider • Baseline information • Complete information about the consequences of each alternative • Information about the values and preferences of citizens • Adequate time, skill, and resources.
Alternatives • Incremental • Push and pull approach • “Satisficing” • Advocacy • Social justice • Radical • Grass roots
Legal Issues • Status of the plan • Relationship of the plan and the zoning ordinance • Jurisdictions
Problems • Scale • Participation • Representation • Equity • Sustainability • Economy • Natural systems • Politics • Values