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The First Feudal Age (300-1000 AD)

The First Feudal Age (300-1000 AD). -Key Concepts-. I. Successors to Rome: “Shadows of the Empire”. A. Byzantine Empire. Greatest Emperor: Justinian (527-565 AD) Handed classical learning and science back to the west --Justinian’s Code of Laws (533) Rebuilding program in Constantinople

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The First Feudal Age (300-1000 AD)

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  1. The First Feudal Age (300-1000 AD) -Key Concepts-

  2. I. Successors to Rome: “Shadows of the Empire”

  3. A. Byzantine Empire • Greatest Emperor: Justinian (527-565 AD) • Handed classical learning and science back to the west --Justinian’s Code of Laws (533) • Rebuilding program in Constantinople • The Hagia Sophia (537)

  4. A. Byzantine Empire (cont) • The Hippodrome • Justinian’s wife Theodora—life and influence • Autocratic nature of the Eastern Emperors • Selection of the Emperor and his administration

  5. A. Byzantine Empire (cont) • Warfare and the enemies of the Empire -- “Greek fire” --Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople (1453) • Tension between the eastern and western churches over icons • Solemn, otherworldly preoccupation

  6. B. Islam and the Islamic World • The life of Muhammad (570-632 AD) • The Koran: “recitings” • “Islam”: submission to Allah • The “Hegira” or flight to Medina (622) • The notion of “jihad” • The Ka’ba and the Black Stone

  7. B. Islam and the Islamic World (cont) • The relationship of men to women • No distinction between clergy and laity • The five pillars of Islam • Differences from Christianity

  8. B. Islam and the Islamic World (cont) • Successors to Muhammad --Shi’ites vs. Sunnies • The Muslim Empire (632-732 AD) • Muslim intellectual and scientific achievements --studied the Greco-Roman classics --the number “0”

  9. C. The Kingdom of the Franks

  10. (1) Germanic Culture • Centrality of the tribal unit or family • The leadership of the war chieftain • Characteristics of Germanic law -- “wergeld” --trial by ordeal • Germanic treatment of women

  11. (1) Germanic Culture (cont) • Blending of Germanic and Roman culture • The decline of town life and trade • The role of forests in Germanic thinking • Settlement patterns

  12. (1) Germanic Culture (cont) • Views of Disease • Treatment of Disease --Eye Disease --Frequent Stomach Disorders -- “Leech” --Broken bones, wounds and burns • Cavities below the gum line were prevalent • The role of monasteries in providing medical care

  13. (2) The Merovingian Dynasty • The Franks: least romanized and most orthodox of the Germanic tribes --Clovis: 1st Frankish King • The struggles and ineffectiveness of the Merovingian kings • The “Mayor of the Palace” • Charles Martel’s defeat of the Muslims at Tours

  14. (3) The Carolingian Dynasty and Charlemagne • Pepin the Short, the first Carolingian king (751) --The “Donation of Pepin” • Pepin’s son, Charles the Great, or Charlemagne (768-814) • Charlemagne’s military exploits • Continued reciprocal relationship with the Pope

  15. (3) Charlemagne (cont) • Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (Christmas Day, 800) • Charlemagne’s palace city of Aachen • Charlemagne’s challenges in administering such a vast empire --missi dominici

  16. (3) Charlemagne (cont) • The Carolingian Renaissance --Alcuin of York • The Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire • The Treaty of Verdun (843) --Louis the German --Charles the Bald --Lothair

  17. II. The “Dark Ages” (9th and 10th Centuries) • Agricultural Difficulties and Violence • Population Decline • Muslim and Magyar invaders • Chief Threat = Vikings • Viking strategy of terror • Effectiveness of Viking boats • The extent of Viking raids

  18. III. The Role of the Church

  19. A. Physical Protection • Offered safe haven to neighbors • Some churchmen were renowned fighters • Monasteries preserved important arts of manufacturing • Popes fill political vacuum in the west --Leo I and Attila the Hun --Gregory I and the Lombards

  20. B. Preservers of Greco-Roman Culture • Significance of copying manuscripts • The role of Pope Gregory I --had been secular Roman administrator • Realized early on that no help would be forthcoming from the Byzantine Empire • Church split in 1054

  21. C. Spiritual Protection • Superstitious, illiterate age • The Church was the door to salvation • Seven Deadly sins: pride, envy, anger, greed, lust, gluttony, and sloth • Seven sacraments • Sacraments of ordination and extreme unction

  22. C. Spiritual Protection (cont) • Sacrament of Matrimony • Sacrament of the Eucharist -- “transubstantiation” • Duties and categories of the clergy -- “regular” vs. “secular” clergy • The Sacrament of Penance -- “Purgatory”

  23. C. Spiritual Protection (cont) • The Power of “Holy” Intercessors • Veneration of the Saints • Shift in the pattern of sainthood into the Middle Ages • The growing importance of female saints --In 1100, only 10% of saints were female; by 15th Century, 29% were female

  24. C. Spiritual Protection (cont) • The cultural power of calling on saints for help • The Supernatural power of Relics • Christian burial near the Church altar

  25. IV. Feudalism and Vassalage

  26. A. Physical Protection • The origins of feudalism • The lord as the central figure of the feudal system • The expense of medieval warfare • Contractual nature of feudalism • The local and emotional nature of feudalism

  27. A. Physical Protection (cont) • The lord’s obligations to his vassal --fief • The vassal’s obligations to his lord --scutage • The complexity of feudal relationships -- “subinfeudation” --liege lord

  28. B. Life in a Medieval Castle • William Manchester’s A World Lit by Fire and Joseph and Frances Gies’ Life in a Medieval Castle • Interior and furnishings of the castle • Servants in the castle

  29. B. Life in a Medieval Castle (cont) • Daily routine and dining • The marriage of aristocratic women • The life of aristocratic women • The church’s view of women • Women and sex • The early life of young noblemen • The ceremony of knighthood

  30. B. Life in a Medieval Castle (cont) • The travels of the young knight • Tournaments and Jousts • Tension surrounding the life of a young knight • The ideal of chivalry -- “troubadours”

  31. V. Manorialism

  32. A. Function • Western Europe was much more rural than Eastern Europe • Manorialism was the economic foundation of feudal society • The “open field” system of medieval farming • Origin and status of serfdom • By 800 AD, nearly 60% of western Europe was enserfed

  33. A. Function (cont) • Composition and administration of the manor • “Custom of the Manor” • Tax obligations of the serfs -- “banalities” • Other limitations on the activities of the serfs

  34. B. Life in a Medieval Village • Living conditions of the serfs • Striking lack of privacy for family members • Variety of dietary options for peasants • The central role of bread in the peasant diet—80% of caloric content

  35. B. Life in a Medieval Village (cont) • Types of meals eaten by villagers • Beer: the universal drink of northern Europe • Accidents as a way of life in manorial villages • The role of women and village clothing • Medieval view of children

  36. B. Life in a Medieval Village (cont) • Center of manorial life was the village church • Village church services • Life was short and frightening for village peasants • Village life was strictly hierarchical • Village life was also very communal • Village life was always very local

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