WRITING SKILLS Dr. T.Jayanthy Dept. of Extension, Career Guidance and Students Welfare Bharathiar University Coimbatore
BASICS OF WRITING Decide on your topic. Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas. Write your thesis statement. Write the body.
WRITING • Definition-The process of writing can be defined as the arrangement of letters ,symbols or sequences to express defined and expressed meanings • Formalism • Generating ideas • Mapping the argument • Suspend judgement • Composing a draft • Problematize • Contextualize • Revision
WRITING PARAGRAPH • WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH? • WHY USE PARAGRAPHS? • HOW IS A PARAGRAPH STRUCTURED? • HOW DO YOU WRITE A PARAGRAPH? • HOW DO YOU MAKE YOUR PARAGRAPHS FLOW?
HOW IS A PARAGRAPH STRUCTURED? • Topic Sentence This is the first sentence and it expresses the main idea. • Supporting Sentences details that expand your main idea. • Concluding Sentence a rounding off, possibly by summarizing what has been said or drawing a logical conclusion from it.
EXAMPLE OF A PARAGRAPH • My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features. First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.
HOW DO YOU MAKE A PARAGRAPH? 1. Using linking words and phrases such as: also, as well as, firstly, next, then, finally, so thus, as a result, because, therefore, for example, for instance, in contrast, on the other hand. 2. Using pronouns: Once mentioned, Jack Smith can become he, Dr. Susan Brown can be she, and the community can be called it, - as long as the meaning is clear. 3. Starting sentences in different ways. For example: Draft sentence:"In Australia, there are three levels of government" Instead, you could write... "Government in Australia is on three different levels" or..."There are three different levels of government in Australia."
MAIN COMPONENTS OF ESSAY WRITING • Write the introduction. • Write the conclusion. • Add the finishing touches.
WRITING AN INTRODUCTION • What should an introduction do? • The content of the introduction • The structure of the introduction • Making it interesting • How long is an introduction?
A TYPICAL INTRODUCTION • Question: Workplace diversity is now recognised as an important feature in organisations, especially in multicultural nations like Australia. What communication problems might arise in a culturally diverse workplace, and how can managers best deal with them? • Over the past twenty five years, since Australia embraced multiculturalism as a policy, issues of intercultural communication have become more and more prominent in the workplace. Most of the workplaces are staffed by people of diverse cultures. Particular problem areas include the difficulties that some non-English speakers have in understanding safety instructions (figures produced by the ABS in 1997 show that migrant workers have a higher incidence of accidents at the workplace); an ignorance of the different forms of non-verbal communication used by other cultures which can lead to misunderstandings and unpleasantness; and the lack of knowledge about differing expectations. Based on interviews with managers and staff in six organisations (public and commercial), this report examines these three problem areas, and shows that many of the difficulties faced by both natives and migrants in the workforce are caused by a lack of awareness of, and training in, intercultural communication.
WRITING A CONCLUSION • Purpose of conclusion • Content of conclusion • Analysis of conclusion
A TYPICAL CONCLUSION • Managers must ensure that effective in-house training programs are provided for migrant workers, so that they become more familiar with the English language, Australian communication norms and the Australian work culture. In addition, Australian native English speakers need to be made aware of the differing cultural values of their workmates; particularly the different forms of non-verbal communication used by other cultures. Furthermore, all employees must be provided with clear and detailed guidelines about company expectations. The interviews with managers and staff reveal that a majority of managers must also have training in cross cultural communication and in managing a culturally diverse workplace. Above all, in order to minimise communication problems and to maintain an atmosphere of tolerance, understanding and cooperation in the multicultural workplace, managers need to have an effective knowledge about their employees, to understand how their social conditioning affects their beliefs about work and to have the communication skills to develop confidence and self-esteem among diverse work groups.
SEVEN STAGES OF WRITING ASSIGNMENTS Develop your topic Identify your audience Research Organize and pre -write Draft/write Revise Proofread
STRUCTURE • A development of the idea • An explanation or analogy • An illustration • Support with evidence • Contextual links to reinforce the structure
REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD WRITER Establish the AIM Consider the READER Devise the STRUCTURE DRAFT the text EDIT and REVISE
PRE REQUISITES OF GOOD WRITING • Self awareness • Target audience • Theme • Subject
LAY OUT • Informative titles • White space • Variety
STYLE OF WRITING • Avoid the use of slang words • Try not to use abbreviations (unless appropriately defined) • Steer away from the use of symbols (such as ampersands [&]) • Cliches鳠should be avoided, or at the very least, used with caution • Brackets are used to play down words or phrases • Dashes are generally used for emphasis
THREE GRAMMAR POINTS • Subject-verb agreement • Correct word class • Verb tense consistency
EXAMPLES The Prime Ministeris meeting the President of the United States at the White House. (singular subject: ‘Prime Minister’; singular verb ‘is meeting’) • Subject -verb Agreement • Correct word class : • These managers differ1; one difference2 between these different3 managers is that they manage differently4. • 1 ‘differ’ is the verb in this part of the sentence • 2. ‘difference’ is being used as a subject, so it is noun form • 3 ‘different’ describes the managers, so it is in adjective form • 4 ‘differently’ tells us how the managers manage, so it is in adverb form • Verb tense consistency • The shop assistant is telling the customer that the shop has not yet received the goods she needs urgently; he says he is going to send them as soon as they arrive. • The shop assistant was telling the customer that the shop had not yet received goods she needed urgently; he said he was going to send them as soon as they arrived.
CRITICAL THINKING • Critical thinking differ between disciplines • Critical thinking and its application in writing • Critical thinking as a generic skill for life
IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD VOCABULARY IN WRITING • Don't need long words • Industry-specific words • Improving your vocabulary • Summary
WRITING EXERCISES • What is writing? • Mechanics • Shape • Size • Convention • Speed of writing • Pragmatics • Selection of appropriate words • Appropriate context
COMPREHENSION • Definition-comprehension can be defined as a process of reading a passage thereby deriving an intended meaning to reproduce it in your own language. • Knowledge of language • Vocabulary skills • Sentence construction
READING COMPREHENSION • Be a voluntary reader • Be an active reader • Read analytically • Reading speed
LISTENING COMPREHENSION • How to take notes. Recognising lecture structure Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar words Understanding intonation
WRITING SPEED • Knowledge is power • Calibre • Drafting the content • Make use of time