MICRO TEACHING Dr G L Gulhane P G Department of Education Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University Amravati
What is Teaching? Teaching is not merely imparting knowledge to students, nor merely giving advice. Teaching is not passing information to the students. Teaching is not sharing one’s own experience.
What is Teaching? The best approach to understanding the nature of teaching is establishing a harmonious relationship between teacher, student and subject. Teaching is the activity of facilitating learning. Effectiveness in teaching does not relate to teacher’s age, sex, and teaching experience. One can become an effective teacher irrespective of his/her age, sex and experience.
Defects in Teaching Defects in Teaching: More Teacher’s talk: Most of the time in the classroom, is devoted to teacher’s talk, and students get very little opportunity to express themselves. Only memory level: During classroom interaction, teacher tends to promote mostly learning requiring memory level thinking. .
Defects in Teaching More information & less explanation: Most of the teachers spend more time in giving information and less on clarifying ideas and still less time for giving explanations. Less chance of encouragement: A very low percentage of teacher’s time in the classroom is used for making encouraging remarks. No planning: Most of the teachers are not systematic in planning and carrying out instruction. .
What is learning? “Change in behavior brought about by activity, training or experiences”. *Learning never ends. *Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. * Anyone who keeps learning stays young. *Effective learning is based on what the learner already knows
How learning happens? ….: Learning – Knowledge acquired by study. Learning happens and knowledge is generated in an environment where interaction between teachers, students and content takes place in interactive ways. There is a famous saying: I hear… I forget; I see … I remember; I do … I understand.
How learning happens? ….: Research around the world also suggest: We remember .. 20% of what we hear; 30% of what we see; 50% of what we see and hear; 90% of what we see, hear & do. Cont…….
Changes in Teacher Role A shift from: 1. Knowledge transmitter, primary source of information, content expert, and source of all answers. 2. Teacher controls and directs all aspects of learning A shift to: 1. Learning facilitator, collaborator, coach, mentor, knowledge navigator, and co-learner. 2. Teacher gives students more options and responsibilities for their own learning
Changes in Student Role A shift from: 1. Passive recipient of information. 2. Reproducing knowledge. 3. Learning as a solitary activity A shift to: 1. Active participant in the learning process. 2. Producing and sharing knowledge, participating at times as expert. 3. Learning collaboratively with others
Microteaching Dr. Allen and his group evolved Microteaching in 1963 in America.
What is Microteaching? Meaning: The teaching of a small unit of content to the small group of students (6-10 number) in a small amount of time (5-7 min.) means Micro Teaching. *It is a skill training technique. *It is a short session teaching. *To train inexperience student-teachers for acquiring teaching skills. *To improve the skills of experience teachers.
Microteaching Cycle(Procedure) Step- I : Micro Lesson Plan ( may take 2 hours / a day) Step-II : Teach 5 Min. Step-III : Feedback Session 5 Min. Step-IV : Re-plan 10 Min. Step-V : Re-teach Another group 5 Min. Step-VI : Re-feedback 5 Min. --------------- Total 30 Min. (Appr.)
Characteristics of Microteaching The duration of teaching as well as number of students are less. The content is divided into smaller units which makes the teaching easier. Only one teaching skill is considered at a time. There is a provision of immediate feedback. In micro teaching cycle, there is facility of re-planning, re-teaching and re-evaluation. It puts the teacher under the microscope All the faults of the teacher are observed. The problem of discipline can also be controlled.
Comparison Between Micro Teaching and Traditional Teaching Traditional Teaching Class consists of 40 to 60 students. The teacher practices several skills at a time. The duration is 40 to 45 minutes. Immediate feed-back is not available. Micro teaching Class consists of a small group of 6 to 10 students. The teacher takes up one skill at a time. Duration of time for teaching is 5 to 7 minutes. There is immediate feed-back.
Cont. Comparison Between Micro Teaching and Traditional Teaching Traditional Teaching There is no control over situation. Teaching becomes complex. The role of the supervisor is vague ( not clear). Pattern of classroom interaction cannot be studied. Micro teaching Teaching is carried on under controlled situation. Teaching is relatively simple. The role of the supervisor is specific and well defined to improve teaching. Pattern of classroom interaction can be studied objectively.
Components of Micro teaching Techniques Student Teacher- The student who gets the training of a teacher is said to be student-teacher. Various capacities are developed in them during training such as – capacity of class management, capacity of maintaining discipline and capacity of organizing various programmes of the school / college etc. Feedback Devices- Providing feedback is essential to make changes in the behavior of the pupils. This feedback can be provided through video-tape, audio-tape and feedback questionnaires.
Components of Micro teaching Techniques Skill: As we know, skill means ability to do something well or expertness. Teaching Skills- Teaching skill is a set of teacher behaviors which are specially effective in bringing about the desired changes in pupils. For example: a) lecturing skill, b) skill of black-board writing, c) skill of asking questions, d) skill of class management etc.
Skills of Micro Teaching 1. Introduction Skill 4. Skill of Stimulus Variation 2. Skill of Probing Questions 5. Skill of Black-board Writing 3. Skill of Explanation 6. Skill of Achieving Closure 21
Skills of Micro teaching Techniques Introduction Skill Skill of Probing Questions Skill of Explanation Skill of Stimulus Variation Skill of Black-board Writing Skill of Achieving Closure
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques Introduction Skill: The skill of introducing a lesson involves establishing rapports with the learners, promoting their attentions, and exposing them to essential contents. Components of this skill- Preliminary Attention Gaining: Normally, at the beginning of a lesson, students are found not to be attentive and mentally prepared for learning. They may be thinking something else too. In such situation, the primary duty of a teacher is to create desire for learning among the students. Teacher can do it by telling a story, with the help of demonstration, recitation, etc.
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques Use of previous knowledge: Previous knowledge refers to the learner’s level of achievements before instruction begins. Use of previous knowledge is a must, because it helps to establish an integration between the pre-existing knowledge of the learner and the new knowledge that the teacher wants to impart him. Use of Appropriate Device: In order to motivate the learner, the teacher should make use of appropriate devices or techniques while introducing a lesson. For example- dramatization, models, audio-visual aids etc. Link with new topic: After preliminary questions and introduction, teachers should establish a link of previous knowledge with present topic.
Cont. Examples on Introduction Skill Instructions: 1. Use only one word of seven letters for first blank. 2. Split the same word into two different words and filled in reaming two blanks. 3. Don’t change sequence of letters. Complete the following sentence: The - - - - - - - surgeon was - - - -- - - to perform operation because he had - -- - - - - .
Cont. Examples on Introduction Skill Complete sentence: The Notable surgeon was notableto perform operation because he had notable .
Cont. Examples on Introduction Skill Answer the following: 1. Golden jubilee + Today's date – Silver jubilee = …..
Cont. Examples on Introduction Skill Answer the following: 2. Children day ÷ Valentine day + independence day = …..
Cont. Examples on Introduction Skill Answer the following: 3. Heads of Ravan X Palms of human body - Republic day = …..
Cont. Examples on Introduction Skill Answer the following: 4. Eyes + Nose – Ears + Teeth – Hands ÷ Tongue =……
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques 2. Skill of Probing Question: Probing questions are those which help the pupils to think in depth about the various aspects of the problem. By asking such questions again, the teacher makes the pupils more thoughtful. He enable the pupils to understand the subject deeply. The components of this skill are: Prompting:- When a pupil expresses his inability to answer some question in the class or his answer is incomplete, the teacher can ask such questions which prompt the pupils in solving the already asked questions. For example- Do you know names of Vice Chancellors of Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University since 1983?
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques Skill of Probing Question: Seeking Further Information: When the pupils answer correctly in the class but the teacher wants more information and further clarification from the learner by putting ‘how’ and ‘why’ of correct part the response. Refocussing : When the teacher ask the same question from other pupil for comparison . This is known as Refocussing. Redirecting Questions: Questions which are directed to more than one learner to answer, are called redirected questions.
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques 3. Skill of Explanation: To present the subject-matter in the simplified form before the pupils and making it acquirable is known as Explanation Skill. It involves a ability of the teacher to describe logically ‘How’, ‘Why’ and ‘What’ of concept, event etc. Components of this skill are: Clear beginning statement: Before starting any explanation, the teacher should make the pupils aware of what he is to teach on that day through a clear beginning statement. Lack of Irrelevant Statement: While presenting the subject matter, only the concerned statements should be used.
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques Fluency in Language: The teacher should use such fluent language that the pupils may listen and understand the thoughts of the teachers. Connecting Links: This technique is used primarily to explain the links in statements with ‘so’, ‘therefore’, ‘because’, ‘due to’, ‘as a result of’, ‘in order to’ etc. Use of Proper Words: The teacher should use proper words for enplaning an object or an event otherwise he would be in a state of confusion. Precautions for skill of Explaining: It should be in simple language. It should not be given the shape of an advice. The thoughts included in it should be in a sequence. Irrelevant things should not be included in it. It should be according to the age, experience and mental level of the pupils.
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques 4. Skill of Stimulus Variation: Stimulus variation is described as deliberate change in the behaviors of the teacher in order to sustain the attention of his learners throughout the lesson.Stimulus variation determines teacher liveliness in the classroom. The components of this skill are: Body Movement: The physical movements of the teacher in the class is to attract the attention of the learners. Sudden body movement and suddenly stopping the same helps in gaining learner’s attention at high level. The teacher without these activities is like a stone-idol. Excess movement is undesirable. Gestures: Gesture involves the movements of the head, hand, and facial gestures (laughing, raising eyebrows, emotions, etc) signals. This technique helps the teacher to be more expressive and dynamic in presenting his lesson in the class.
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques Change in Voice: Teacher should bring fluctuations in his voice. The pupils feel boredom with the speech at the same pitch, and pupils get deviated from the lesson. Focussing: Focussing implies drawing the attention of the learners towards a particular point which the teacher wishes to emphasize. Such technique involves verbal focusing, gestural focusing, or verbal-gestural focusing. Eye-contact and eye-movement: Both the eye-contact and eye-movement play very important role in conveying emotions and controlling interaction between the teacher and taught. In a classroom situation, this technique implies that the teacher should maintain eye-contact with the learners in order to sustain the attention of the latter.
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques Pausing: Pausing refers to short and deliberate intervals of silence used while delivering ideas, explaining, lecturing, etc. Deliberate use of short pauses help the teacher to attract and sustain the attention of his learners. But too long pauses may be irritating. 5. Skill of Black-board Writing: Blackboards, being the visual aids, are widely used in all aspects of education and training, and are most suitable for giving a holistic picture of the lesson. A good blackboard work brings clearness in perception and the concepts being taught, and adds variety to the lesson.
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques The components of the skill of blackboard writing are: Legibility ( Easy to read ) Size and alignment ( In a straight line ) Highlighting main points Utilization of the space Blackboard summary Correctness Position of the teacher and Contact with the pupils.
Writing Skill Legibility ( Easy to read ): A legible handwriting on the blackboard draws the attention of the learners and encourages them to improve upon their handwritings. In order to make handwritings more legible, the teacher should see that a clear distinction is ensured between every letter, adequate space is maintained between individual letters and words. Size and Alignment: The size of the letters written by the teacher on the board should be uniform and large enough to be read from the last row. The size of the capital letters should be larger than that of the small letters and the handwritings should be as vertical as possible without being diverged from a line.
Writing Skill Highlighting Main Points: The main points or words written on the board should only be highlighted by underlying them. Colored chalks should be used suitably for the purpose of drawing the learners attention to those main points that need to be highlighted too. Utilization of the Space: For the proper utilization of the space important words or statements should be written on the board. Overwriting on the letters should be avoided as it makes the blackboard work untidy. Only essential materials should be retained on the blackboard and unnecessary words should be rubbed off.
Writing Skill Blackboard Summary: In order to make teaching meaningful to the learners the teacher should develop blackboard summary at the end of the lesson. This should be so brief that the learners can recollect the whole lesson at a glance. Correctness: While constructing sentences on the board, the teacher should be careful about correct spelling, punctuation, grammar, etc.
Writing Skill Position of the Teacher: The position of teacher should not be in between the learners and the blackboard. Contact with Pupils: The teacher, at the time of writing on the board, should maintain eye-contact with his learners. This is necessary for controlling interactions, maintaining disciplines, sustaining attentions of the learners, etc.
Blackboard Writing Skill Legibility ( Easy to read ): A legible handwritin
Cont. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques 6. Skill of Achieving Closure: When a student- teacher delivers lecture and sums up properly and in an attractive way, the skill is termed as “Closure Skill”. The lesson/period remains ineffective in the absence of proper closure.
Feedback in Micro teaching Feedback is the information supplied to the individual. The success of micro teaching depends on feedback. Which can also be used within the process of teaching as well as after the lesson taught. It is used in various forms in case of micro teaching by the supervisor, video-tape, films, T.V., which are various sources of feedback.
Advantages Of Microteaching It focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and eliminating errors. It enables understanding of behaviours important in class-room teaching. It increases the confidence of the learner teacher. It is a vehicle of continuous training for both beginners and for senior teachers. It provides experts supervision and constructive feedback.
SUMMARY Microteaching involves presentation of micro lesson Audience….small group of peers. Feedback given by peers role playing as students Participants learn about strengths & weakness in themselves as teachers Plan strategies for improvement in performance