The history of fibers is as old as human civilization. Traces ofnatural fibers have been locatedto ancient civilizations all overthe globe. For many thousandyears, the usage of fiber waslimited by natural fibers such asflax, cotton, silk, wool and plantfibers for different applications. Fibers can be divided into natural fibers and man-made or chemical fibers. Flax isconsidered to be the oldest andthe most used natural fibersince ancient times
“fiber” or “textile fiber” A unit of matter which is capable of being spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by bonding or by interlacing in a variety of methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, twisting, or webbing, and which is the basic structural element of textile products. It is a smallest textile component which is microscopic hair like substance that may be man made or natural. They have length at least hundred times to that of their diameter or width
Fiber Categories • Natural • Originate from natural sources • Plant (cellulosic) or animal (protein) • Manufactured, synthetic, or man-made (terms interchangeable) • Originate from chemical sources • May also be from regenerated or recycled sources
Natural Fibers • Cellulosic (from plants) • Cotton • From cotton plants • Flax (linen) • From flax stems • Protein (from animals) • Silk • From cocoons of silkworms • Wool • From fleece (hair) of sheep or lambs cocoon • lambs
Fibers Staple: short fibers Usually characterizes a natural fiber Filament: long continuous fibers Usually characterizes a synthetic fiber (except silk) Denier Fiber thickness or diameter Yarns Fibers twisted together Ply refers to how many yarns may be twisted together before weaving Fabrics Yarns woven, knitted, or fused together to create fabric Textile Terms Denier: A unit of fineness for rayon, nylon, and silk fibers, based on a standard mass per length of 1 gram per 9,000 meters of yarn.
Weaving Weaving is a textile craft in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced to form a fabric or cloth.
Plain weave Plain weave (also called tabby weave or taffeta weave) is the most basic of three fundamental types of textile weaves (along with satin weave and twill). It is strong and hard-wearing, used for fashion and furnishing fabrics. A plain-woven fabric In plain weave, the warp and weft are aligned (associated) so they form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each weft thread crosses the warp threads by going over one, then under the next, and so on. The next weft thread goes under the warp threads that its neighbor went over, and vice versa. In weaving, weft or woof is the yarn which is drawn through the warp yarns to create cloth
Balanced plain weaves are fabrics in which the warp and weft are made of threads of the same weight (size) and the same number of ends per inch as picks per inch. Balanced plain weave • Basket weave is a variation of plain weave in which two or more threads are bundled and then woven as one in the warp or weft, or both. Basket weave
Satin Weave The satin weave is distinguished by its lustrous, or 'silky', appearance. Satin describes the way the threads are combined, and the yarn used may be silk or polyester, among others, giving different fabrics. Stain weave for silk with 16 warp yarns floating over each weft yarn
Twill Weave Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs (in contrast with a satin and plain weave). This is done by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads and then under two or more warp threads and so on, with a "step" or offset between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern. Because of this structure, twills generally drape well. Examples of twill fabric are chino, drill, denim, gabardine, tweed and serge.
Braiding A braid (also called plait) is a complex structure or pattern formed by intertwining three or more strands of flexible material such as textile fibres, wire, or human hair.
Cotton • Cellulosic fiber • From “bolls” (seed pods) growing on bushes • Comfortable • Soft and durable • Porous or leaky, cool to wear • “Environmentally friendly” cotton can be grown in a range of colors Many cottons are also blended with other natural fibers, such as linen, for particular properties
Wool • Protein fiber • From sheep • Worsted wool is higher quality with long staple fibers (over 2 inches) • Natural insulator • Will shrink and mat if washed Worsted: compactly twisted woolen yarn made from long-staple fibers
Flax (Linen) (Tisi) • World’s oldest textile fiber • Cellulosic fiber from stem of flax plant • Stiff, wrinkles (folds) easily • Absorbent (leaky), cool to wear in heat • Other uses • Dish towels • Tablecloths Flax is the fiber name; linen is the fabric name.
Other Natural Fibers • Ramie • Jute • Sisal • Hemp • Raffia • Down feathers • Hair fibers from • Goats • Rabbits • Camels Cellulosic Fibers Protein Fibers
Leather and Fur • From hides or pelts (skins) of animals • Expensive • Artificial substitutes available (faux leather and fur) • Leather used mainly for footwear • Fur used for “prestige” apparel and accessories
Manufactured Fibers • Process • Raw materials melted or dissolved to form thick syrup • Liquid extruded through spinneret • Extruded filaments stretched and hardened into fibers
Generic group: a family of manufactured fibers with similar chemical composition Common generic fibers from chemical or petroleum products: Polyester Nylon Olefin Acrylic Variants: trade or brand names given to slightly modified generic fibers Example: ANTRON nylon used for hosiery Categories of Manufactured Fibers (generic groups)
Qualities that are unique or superior to natural fibers Elasticity Nonallergenic Strength Resistant to abrasion Qualities that may be less than desirable Feel clammy because they are nonabsorbent Build up static electricity Susceptible to oil stains Manufactured Fibers
Other Types of Manufactured Fibers • Fibers that come from a plant (cellulosic) source; chemically altered to create new fibers (regenerated) • Rayon • Acetate and Triacetate • Lyocell
Fiber Innovation and Trends • Fibers are designed for specific end-uses • Polymers (chemical compounds) are engineered to meet needs • “Microfibers” are ultra-fine deniers that make softer, more luxurious fabrics • Spandex added in fiber blends to make stretchable fabrics NEW!! Plastic soft drink bottles recycled into apparel
Spinning Fibers into Yarns • Spinning draws, twists, and winds staple, filament, or blends of both fibers into long, cohesive strands or yarns • Yarns wound onto bobbins or spools • Twist may vary, creating different yarn properties Early 18th century spinning wheel
Yarn Terminology • Yarn blends • Combining two or more fibers into a spun yarn • Combination yarns • Contain two or more plys of different fibers • Textured yarns • Changing the surface of a yarn using chemicals, heat, or machinery Texturing gives bulk, stretch, softness, and wrinkle-resistance to yarns.