TEXTILE Textile is a Latin word which refers to Woven Fabrics. The term now has a broader meaning and covers materials which are produced by other means , including: the interlacing of yarns, such as knitting, lace making and netting; other needlework techniques worked through a woven base, such as embroidery and canvas work. Some examples of textiles costume, uniforms;millinery;tapestries;ecclesiastical textiles;carpets and rugs;dolls & soft toys, parasols and fans;patchwork and applique;flags and banners;quilts;needlework;curtains, upholstery;ethnographic textiles;samplers;non-woven materials such as felt,etc.
Textile Process Flow • Textile Fiber Selection • Yarn (Spinning) • Weaving or knitting • Processing(Dyeing & Printing) • Finishing
YARN • Yarn is defined as a linear assemblage of the fibers twisted together. • The process of making the yarn from a textile fiber is called Spinning
YARN MANUFACTURING PROCESS (Cotton) • BALE OPENER • MIXING • BLOW-ROOM • CARDING • DRAWING • COMBING • SIMPLEX (ROVING) • SPINNING (RING FRAME)
BALE OPENING • BALE OPENING or BREAKING: • The cotton tufts are opened in this process. • As the cotton arrives in an extremely compressed condition the first operation is to loosen the matted fibers • The cotton fiber is loosen by means of rotating spiked rollers of the bale opener.
Mixing • This is a process of mixing the same/different category of fibers to get desired properties and cost effectiveness. • Mixing is done after the study of the essential properties of fiber like staple length,Tensile strength, fineness, uniformity etc.
BLOWROOM • In this process the cleaning and opening of the cotton is done by beaters and openers. • The foreign materials like dust particles, seeds of cotton and other impurities are partially removed in this process. • The cotton tufts are opened and cleaned in this process and the cotton lap is made out.
CARDING • Carding is the heart of spinning in this process the minute impurities like small seed particles,immature fibers etc. are removed. • The straightening and aligning of fibers are done in this process. • In carding the Blow room lap is attenuated to the card sliver.
Draw Frame • Through drafting fibbers get paralleled • Up to Eight Carded Slivers are fed into the Draw-Frame and they are stretched/Straightened and made into a single sliver. • Also fiber blending can be done at this stage.
Simplex (Roving Frame) • Further drafting is done here to get the fibers more aligned/paralleled. • The Sliver from Draw-Frame is thicker and will be difficult to be fed into the Ring-frame as is, hence here the Slivers are stretched and were made thinner by Drafting and mild twisting (so as to strengthen the Roving). • The End-Product from the Simplex is called as Roving.
Ring Frame (Spinning) • The roving is fed into the Ring-frame and is made into yarn by further Drafting & Twisting. • Basic Functions of Ring Frame • to draft the roving until the required fineness is achieved • to impart strength to the fiber, by inserting twist. • Depending upon the yarn count required , the drafting and twisting can be adjusted.