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Sedentarization

Sedentarization

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Sedentarization

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  1. Sedentarization

  2. What is it?

  3. The image above is a Palaeolithic axe. The earliest humans are believed to have started in the Palaeolithic era. This time period started roughly 2.6 million years ago.

  4. The First Humans Early humans were nomadic. Nomadic: constantly moving in order to find food (water). These first humans lived off of nature. Their food came from hunting and gathering (edible plants, nuts, grains). These early humans lived in small groups of about 10-30. Whenever they would run out of food in one area they would move to another.

  5. The Fertile Crescent Located in the near east, is nicknamed the “cradle of civilization.” This means that the first civilizations were started in this area. This area has a very rich soil mostly due to flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It also has access to the Persian gulf, Mediterranean and Red Seas.

  6. The soil in this area was rich in nutrients which allowed people to farm. • The Fertile Crescent incorporates modern day; Kuwait, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia.

  7. Sedentarization Starts Between 10 000 and 8 000 BC. Humans began to adopt a sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary: to remain in one place. Evidence of sendentarization have been discovered all over the world. The oldest examples come from an area located in the near east; the Fertile Crescent

  8. It is believed that early humans settled in the Fertile Crescent because of its abundance of edible plants. These people begin to develop tools to harvest these plants. This area was also home to many different types of animals. Early humans noticed that many animals came to the river banks to feed, drink, and mate. This made the animal supply virtually endless.

  9. Nomadic Life Humans are gregarious. This means that it is in our nature to live in groups. The earliest human formed small and simple societies, in order to search for food. Society: a group who lives together over a long period of time and develop similar traits.

  10. These societies has a vast territory without defined boarders. They acquired food through hunting (men) and gathering (women). For example: grains and wild fruit or mammoth When the food supply in a certain area would become depleted, these societies would move to a new area.

  11. Nomadic to Sedentary Life Around 8000 BC early humans began to cultivate plants. This meant that humans did not have to move around to look for food. How did this happen? How did early humans discover agricultural practices? Unfortunately we do not know for sure but we have two hypothesis.

  12. 1st Hypothesis Early humans knew where to find wild fruit and grains. They were also expert hunters and could observe animals without alerting them. It is possible that early humans observed that seeds that were carried by these animals fell on the ground, and sprouted. After a certain period of time they began to sow the seeds themselves.

  13. 2nd Hypothesis With both of these hypothesis people began leaving behind the nomadic lifestyle and adopting a sedentary way of life. Early humans would gather fruit and grains. They noticed that new plants would grow where seeds where left on the ground. These groups began to plant seeds themselves.

  14. Early Agricultural Practices • With the emergence of farming people did not have to constantly move to find food. • Instead people spent their harvesting crops and developing tools to make harvesting easier. • They developed tools like; the hoe, sickle, grinder, and rubbing stone. • They also made baskets and other containers to store food.

  15. First Villages The period in which sedentarization occurs is the Neolithic period. The first villages were located near farmer’s fields. These villages were protected by a large stone wall. Villages held about 100-200 people. However, larger villages like Çatal Hüyük did appear.

  16. ÇatalHüyük Çatal Hüyük is located in modern day Turkey. It is believed that is housed close to 7000 people. It is know for its unique design of interconnected square houses. Most houses were one room, with a fireplace and a ladder to access to door.

  17. Many house were decorated with paintings of animals. These were called frescos. Many Neolithic villages had statues of the mother goddess. In Neolithic societies a women’s fertility was worshiped. Fertile women meant survival of the group.

  18. Lifestyle changes during the Neolithic Period When people started to farm they also began protecting their crops. This quickly led to the idea of property and ownership. This also led to conflict over property and ownership of land between different groups. Also during this period, population increased.

  19. Since people were not constantly moving, many were able to concentrate on stating a family. With a regular supply of food children could be raised properly and in a safe environment. With a constant food supply many people became craftsmen, since there was no need for so many farmers. These craftsmen made tools, worked with metals, made clothes, baskets, and pots.

  20. New Social Groups • In the Nomadic lifestyle men and women had different tasks to accomplish. • This carried over during the first years of sedentarization. • However, as skilled craftsmen emerged this developed new social classes. • This meant that for the first time in history people classified by their jobs not by their gender.

  21. Trade With the rise of farming there was a surplus (extra) of food in Neolithic villages. Farmers would trade their surplus for tools, baskets, pots, and other services. This type of trade was called bartering. Some people even became merchants. These merchants would bring their goods to far away villages in order to trade.

  22. Politics in Neolithic Villages It is presumed that in nomadic societies decisions were made by the group’s best hunters. Since there lives consisted of acquiring food. However, Neolithic villages were very different. Historians have very little evidence on how a Neolithic village was run.

  23. What are the pros and cons of each model? Which model would work better? Why? • We have two possible hypothesis: 1) Strong Central Authority • One leader who is advised by close family/friends. This leader makes all of the decisions. 2) Village Council • A group of village members who make decisions together.