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Ch. 4 Atomic Structure

Ch. 4 Atomic Structure. Section 4.1 Studying Atoms. Ancient Greek Models Of Atoms. Democritus believed that all matter consisted of extremely small particles that could not be divided. He called these at particles “ atomos ” or atoms

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Ch. 4 Atomic Structure

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  1. Ch. 4 Atomic Structure Section 4.1 Studying Atoms

  2. Ancient Greek Models Of Atoms • Democritus believed that all matter consisted of extremely small particles that could not be divided. • He called these at particles “atomos” or atoms • He thought were different types of atoms with specific sets of properties • Ex. Liquids were round and smooth, solids were rough and prickly • His opponent Aristotle did not think there was a limit to number of times matter could be divided.

  3. Dalton’s Atomic Theory • John Dalton was a teacher who spent spare time doing scientific experiments • He studied gases in air and concluded that a gas consists of individual particles. • He gathered evidence for the existence of atoms by measuring the masses of elements that combine when compounds form. • He concluded that compounds have a fixed composition.

  4. He developed a theory to explain why they are fixed. • Dalton proposed the theory that all matter is made up of individual particles called, atoms, which cannot be divided. • That is looked like a solid sphere.

  5. Main Points of Dalton’s theory are: • All elements are composed of atoms • All atoms of the same element have the same mass, and atoms of different elements have different masses • Compounds contain atoms of more than one element • In a particular compounds, atoms of different elements always combine in the same way

  6. His theory became widely accepted • Over time, scientists found that not all of Dalton’s ideas about atoms were completely correct • They revised the theory to take into account new discoveries

  7. Thomson’s Model of the Atom • J.J Thomson used electric current to learn more about atoms • Thomson used a device shown below.

  8. The device is a sealed glass tube from which most of the air has been removed. • When current is turned on, on disk becomes negatively charged and the other becomes positively charged. • A glowing beam appears in the space between the disks. • Thomson hypothesized that the beam was a stream of charged particles that interacted with the air in the tube and caused the air to glow.

  9. Evidence for Subatomic Particles • Thomson concluded that the particles in the beam had a negative charge because they were attracted to the positive plate • This discovery changed how scientists thought about atoms. • Thomson’s experiments provided the first evidence that atoms are made of even smaller particles. • He revised Dalton’s model to account for these subatomic particles.

  10. Thomson’s Model • How can an atom contain negative particle and still be Neutral? • In Thomson’s model of the atom, the negative charges were evenly scattered throughout an atom filled with positively charged mass of matter. • Called “Plum Pudding”

  11. Rutherford’s Atomic Theory • He discovered that uranium emits fast moving particles that have a positive charge • Rutherford and Marsden (a pupil) created a Gold foil Experiment to test these positive charges. • Results of the experiment that the positive charge of an atom is not evenly spread throughout the atom. • It concentrated in a very small, central area that Rutherford call the nucleus

  12. According to Rutherford’s model, al of an atom’s positive charge is concentrated in its nucleus.

  13. One of the first people to state that matter is made up of atoms was ____________. • A. Democritus • B. Dalton • C. Aristotle • D. Rutherford

  14. Dalton’s model of an atoms is best described as • A. a solar system • B. a plum pudding • A solid sphere • An electron cloud

  15. Who provided the first evidence that atoms contain subatomic particles? • A. Dalton • B. Rutherford • C. Thomson • D. Bohr

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