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Integumentary System

Integumentary System

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Integumentary System

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  1. Integumentary System Michelle Mason, Hunter Eisenhower, Micaela Lincoln, Liam Murray

  2. What is the integumentary system? • Organ system that protects the body from damage • Guards the body’s physical and biochemical integrity • Functions: • Waterproof, cushion, and protect deeper tissues, excrete waste, regulate body temperature, attachment point for sensory receptors, vitamin D synthesis

  3. The Skin • The skin is the body’s integumentary system • Largest of the body’s organ systems • 12% - 15% of body’s weight • Is composed of a minimum of 3 layers: • Epidermis • Dermis • Hypodermis

  4. Epidermis • Outermost layer composed of epithelial cells • Composed of 4 layers: stratum basale, spinosum layer, stratum granulosum, stratum corneum • Has no blood supply and depends on diffusion from dermal cells for metabolic needs

  5. Stratum Basal • Bottom most layer responsible for constantly renewing epidermal cells • Contains one row of undifferentiated columnar stem cells that divide frequently • Half of the divided cells move to the next layer to begin the maturing process • Other half stays in basal layer and divides over and over to replenish basal layer • Contains melanocytes: the cells responsible for creating melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color

  6. Spinosum Layer • Cells transferred here change from columnar to polygonal • Cells begin to synthesize keratin • Keratin is the key component in making up the outer layer of skin, along with hair and nails.

  7. Stratum Granulosum • Cells here have lost their nuclei and are characterized by dark clumps of cytoplasmic material • Here keratin proteins and water-proofing lipids are produced and organized

  8. Stratum Corneum • Cells here known as coreocytes and have flattened out • Cells here are composed of mainly keratin protein which add strength but also allow absorption of water • Responsible for integrity and hydration of skin • Disruptions in this layer can result in a variety of skin problems

  9. Dermis • 2 Layers • Stratum papillare • Stratum Reticulare • Dermis layer responsible for: • Cushioning body • Sense of touch • Made up of • Collagen • Elastic Fibers • Hair Follicles

  10. Stratum Papillare • Makes up upper part of dermis • It forms the sharp, wave shaped border of the dermis • The wavy surface increases the contact with the epidermis • Made of loose connective tissue • Connects the dermis to the epidermis

  11. Stratum reticulare • Makes up a lower part of the dermis • Much thicker then the papillary • The protein fibers give the layer • Strength • Extensibility • Elasticity • Contains • Roots of hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors, nails, and blood vessels

  12. Hypodermis • Sometimes referred to as the Subcutaneous layer and the superficial fascia • The lowermost layer of the integumentary system • It contains larger blood vessels and nerves than those in the dermis • A major storage site for adipose tissue

  13. Contents of The Hypodermis • Cells • Fibroblasts • Adipose • Macrophages • Subcutaneous Fat • Layer of insulation to hold in heat • Assists in Homeostasis

  14. Accessory Structures of the Skin • Sudoriferous and sebaceous glands • Hair and hair follicles • Nails

  15. Sudoriferous and Sebaceous Glands • Sebaceous Glands: (oil glands) found surrounding hair follicles and deposit sebum, oily substance that lubricates the hair and skin, onto the hair shaft • Sudoriferous glands: (sweat glands) located in the dermis and secrete a watery substance that is important in body temperature regulation and excretion • Four types: Eccrine, apocrine, ceruminous, and mammary glands

  16. Eccrine & Apocrine Glands • Eccrine Glands: major sweat glands of the human body; products contain mainly water, salts, and nitrogen-containing wastes • Apocrine Glands: don’t become active until after puberty; found only in the axilla, genital area, and areolae of the nipple; products contain lipids and proteins

  17. Ceruminous & Mammary Glands • Modified suderiferous glands • Ceruminous Glands: Found in ear canal. Produce a waxy substance (cerumen) that prevents foreign substances from entering the auditory canal. • Mammary Glands: Found in breasts. Synthesize and secrete milk after appropriate hormonal stimulation.

  18. Integumentary Illnesses • Sunburn • Athlete’s foot • Albinism • Acne • Herpes • Blisters • Rashes

  19. Souces • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integumentary_system • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookintegusys.html • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/189836/epidermis • http://www.skin-science.com/_int/_en/topic/topic_sousrub.aspx?tc=SKIN_SCIENCE_ROOT%5EAN_ORGAN_REVEALED%5ETHE_DERMIS&cur=THE_DERMIS • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcutaneous_tissue