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Integumentary System

Integumentary System

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Integumentary System

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  1. Integumentary System BIOL241 Lab #7

  2. Overview of the Integumentary System

  3. Organization of the Epidermis: Figure 5–2

  4. Layers of the epidermis are known as “strata”

  5. Layers of the Epidermis Top: Free surface of skin - stratum corneum - stratum lucidum - stratum granulosum - stratum spinosum • stratum germinativum Bottom: Basal lamina

  6. A note on thick vs. thin skin • Thick skin has an extra layer (lucidum) but that is NOT the reason that it is thicker than thin skin. • Real reason is the other layers are thicker in thick skin than in thin skin.

  7. The Dermis • Deeper part of cutaneous layer • Located between epidermis and subcutaneous layer • Anchors epidermal accessory structures (hair follicles, sweat glands) • Has 2 components: • outer papillary layer • deep reticular layer

  8. The Papillary Layer • Consists of areolar tissue • Contains smaller capillaries, lymphatic vessels, and sensory neurons • Has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges

  9. The Reticular Layer • Consists of dense irregular connective tissue • Contains larger blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerve fibers • Contains collagen and elastic fibers

  10. Integumentary Accessory Structures • Hair, hair follicles, sebaceous (oil) glands, sweat glands, and nails: • are derived from embryonic epidermis • are located in dermis • project through the skin surface

  11. The Hair Follicle • Is located deep in dermis • Is made of epidermal tissue (with connective tissue around the outside) • Produces nonliving hairs • Is wrapped in a dense connective-tissue sheath • Base is surrounded by sensory nerves

  12. Hair

  13. Structures of Hair and Follicles Figure 5–9a

  14. Accessory Structures of Hair • Arrectorpili: • involuntary smooth muscle • causes hairs to stand up • produces “goose bumps” • Sebaceous glands: • lubricate the hair • control bacteria

  15. Inside the Follicle Figure 5–9b

  16. Exocrine Glands in the skin • Sebaceous glands and follicles (oil glands): • holocrine glands • secrete sebum • Sweat glands: • merocrine glands • watery secretions

  17. Types of Sebaceous Glands • Sebaceous glands: • associated with most hair follicles (on head and body) • Sebaceous follicles: • discharge directly onto skin surface • found on face and trunk • when clogged  acne

  18. Sebaceous glands

  19. Types of Sweat Glands • Apocrine: • found in armpits, around nipples, and groin • Merocrine: • more numerous, widely distributed on body surface • especially on palms and soles (thick skin)  Both are actually merocrine

  20. “Apocrine” Sweat Glands • Merocrine secretions, not apocrine • Associated with hair follicles in groin, nipples, and axillae (armpits) • Become active at puberty • Produce sticky, cloudy secretions (thick sweat) that breaks down and causes odor

  21. Merocrine Sweat Glands • Also called eccrine glands: • coiled, tubular glands • discharge directly onto skin surface • sensible perspiration for cooling (thin sweat) • water, salts, and organic compounds

  22. Sweat Glands of the Skin Merocrine Apocrine

  23. Epidermis What to look for: • Usually darkest between stratum germinativum and stratum granulosm (granulosm often a dark meandering line) • Keratinized cells (s. corneum) often lift off the underlying layers • S. germinativum along basal lamina, along with melanocytes

  24. Dermis: Papillary vs. Reticular layer

  25. What to look for • Papillary layer • has ridges • is areolar • Just under basal lamina • Reticular layer • much thicker • Dense irregular CT • Hypodermis • Loose CTP

  26. More skin

  27. What to look for Found in most skin Coiled, tubular Small lumens in cross section Have duct that goes all the way to the epidermal surface and ends in sweat pore Smaller than apocrine, don’t extend as deep into dermis Merocrine sweat gland

  28. Apocrine sweat gland What to look for: • Associated with hair follicle • Only in nipples, groin, armpit • Large lumens • Deeper in dermis than merocrine

  29. Apocrine sweat gland

  30. Hair with sebaceous glands and arrectorpilli

  31. Hair What to look for: • Follicles are rarely complete • Can often see root, papilla at base of hair • Arrectorpilli muscle at an angle • Associated glands (which are?)

  32. Sebaceous glands

  33. Sebaceous glands What to look for: • Associated with hair follicle • Found most everywhere hair follicles are found in skin • Look like cauliflower (maybe?)

  34. Sebaceous follicle

  35. Sebaceous follicle What to look for: • Also look like cauliflower • Found on face and trunk only • NOT associated with hair follicle • Have duct that opens onto skin surface

  36. Lab Activity #7 • Look at slides: • Axillary skin (armpit) • Pigmented and Nonpigmented thin skin slide • Scalp

  37. What will you find there? Armpit Scalp • Hair? • Hair follicle? • Sebaceous gland? • Sebaceous follicle? • Apocrine sweat gland? • Merocrine sweat gland? Y Y Y Y Y Y ? N Y N Y Y

  38. Pigmented Thin Skin • Find: • Epidermis • Identify layers, starting with germinativum • Find melanocytes • Dermis • Papilary and reticular CT layers • Hypodermis

  39. Axillary skin • Locate: • an apocrine sweat gland. • a merocrine sweat gland • also look for a sebaceous follicle (not associated with a hair)

  40. Turn in one drawing page with… • Three types of glands (one sebaceous, a merocrine sweat gland and an apocrine sweat gland) • Epidermis (label the four layers) • Dermis (label papillary and reticular) • Hair follicles and shaft (label follicle, sebaceous gland, arrectorpilli muscle if seen)

  41. Assignment • For Next Monday turn in: • Your drawing • Review Sheet #7 (you do not have to do the parts about plotting sweat glands and fingerprinting on page 104)