Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Government of India GRIHA&Solar PassiveArchitecture/Renewables R S Prasad, Consultant, ADaRSH
What is a Green Building? • A green building is a building which provide comfortable living and working conditions to its occupants while minimizing its detrimental impact on the environment.
Difference between Energy Efficient and Green • An Energy Efficient building will only conserve energy as compared to other buildings • A Green Building will • conserve energy; • conserve water; • conserve the landscape; • reduce waste generation; • adopt recycling and reuse of materials; and • use low-energy materials
Green building design calls for: integrated and coordinated design approach….in planning, design, construction and management
Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment Toolto facilitate design, construction, operation of a green building ,and in turn ….measure “greenness” of a building in India What gets measured gets managed
Highlights Set of 34 criteria 100 (+4 innovation points) point system with differential weightage on various criteria • 51 - 60 • 61 - 70 • 71 - 80 • 81- 90 • 91- 100
Weightage based on our National Priorities GRIHAinnovation points over and above 100 points
Key highlights of GRIHA Sets out guidelines for design, construction and operation Combination of qualitative and quantitative criteria Sets performances benchmarks for key resources like, energy and water Facilitates integration of traditional knowledge on architecture with present day technology Integrates all relevant Indian codes and standards(e.g National building code 2005, Energy Conservation Building Code 2007, IS codes) Is in complete alignment with government policies and programs (e.g Environmental clearance by the MoEF)
Key highlights of GRIHA • Building types • Commercial • Residential • Institutional • 5 climatic zones • Hot – Dry • Warm – Humid • Composite • Temperate • Cold
Salient features • 30-40% reduction in operation cost with negligible impact on project cost. • A simple inclusive single window process from Design to Rating • Inclusive process with high degree of hand holding from ADaRSH • Only rating system that exclusively covers ventilated, air conditioned and non-air conditioned buildings/campuses • 140 projects with about 7 million square metres registered with GRIHA
37% 45% kWhr/yr GRIHA Compliant Building: Beyond ECBC • ECBC Compliance: • Insulation • High Performance glass • Controls • Efficient electrical , mechanical and lighting systems • Incremental cost: 15% • Payback period < 5 years • GRIHA Compliance: • ECBC + • Passive principles (shading, orientation, controlled glass area) • Higher indoor design conditions (higher by 1 deg C) • Optimized lighting design • No further incremental cost • Payback period: < 4 years
Designing a green building! • By adopting the integrated design approach such that the client, architect, engineers, and consultants design the building in a coordinated manner with a common goal – sustainability. • By optimizing site conditions (trees, water bodies, windflow, orientation, etc.) and retain them to cater to the local thermal / visual comfort requirements of the building • By adopting sound architectural practices and taking examples from India’s traditional architecture • By following India’s national codes and standards • By designing precisely-sized energy systems and not basing them on broad thumb-rules
Designing a green building! (Continued…) By following regional development plans (such as the UDPFI guidelines, master plans) and local building by-laws By adopting locally available construction materials and giving impetus to local arts, crafts, architecture and artisans By reducing the resource consumption of the building and its inhabitants so that the waste generating there-from is reduced By adopting energy efficient technologies (EETs) and equipment By adopting renewable energy technology (RETs) applications to reduce the demand on conventional energy
GRIHA-Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment GRIHA attempts to minimize a building’s resource consumption, waste generation, and overall ecological/ environmental impact by consistent with nationally acceptable limits / benchmarks. It does so using the five ‘R’ philosophy of sustainable development, namely • Refuse – to blindly adopt international trends, materials, technologies, products, etc. Specially in areas where local substitutes/equivalents are available • Reduce – the dependence on high energy products, systems, processes, etc. • Reuse – materials, products, traditional technologies, so as to reduce the costs incurred in designing buildings as well as in operating them • Recycle – all possible wastes generated from the building site, during construction, operation and demolition • Reinvent – engineering systems, designs, and practices such that India creates global examples that the world can follow rather than us following international examples
Why should you get your building rates? Some of the benefits of a green design to a building owner, user, and the society as a whole are as follows: • Reduced energy consumption without sacrificing the comfort levels (lower operational costs) • Reduced water consumption • Reduced system sizes (HVAC, transformers, cabling, etc.) for optimal performance at local conditions. • Reduced investment (Lifecycle costs) • Reduced destruction of natural areas, habitats, and biodiversity, and reduced soil loss from erosion etc. • Reduced air and water pollution (with direct health benefits) • Limited waste generation due to recycling and reuse • Reduced pollution loads • Increased user productivity • Enhanced image and marketability
Passive Solar Architecture • Is the design of buildings whose orientation, forms, shading, materials, fenestration(window/door openings) and site planning enable the structure to naturally store thermal energy from the sun and/or cool the structure by shielding it from the sun rays and causing on unassisted air flow. • Mankind has been using passive solar majors since time immemorial. The traditional buildings in India bear testimony to it. • Passive solar techniques are as varied as architecture itself and depend upon the climatic regions.
Can buildings adopt traditional design principles and yet appear contemporary?
Pearl Fashion Academy Architects: Morphogenesis http://img248.imageshack.us/i/pearlacademyfashion1mp0.jpg/
Design to reduce conventional energy demand(Based on principles of solar passive design) • Conventional ‘adopt international design’ Phenomena • More buildings are being built out of glass these days • Lack of sound design keeps the visual comfort low (high glare conditions, excess heat ingress, etc.) • Most occupants keep their curtains closed in glass buildings and use artificial lighting all day long. • Thereby adding to the overall energy consumption • GRIHA approach • The design is optimized to allow maximum natural light in, while eliminating glare • Sound shading strategies ensure no direct solar radiation is allowed into occupied spaces during summers (and vice versa in winters) Also, • Appropriate planning that reflects climate responsiveness • Adequate day lighting provided • Over and under-design of lighting system is avoided
Climate-responsive design strategies As per the climatic classification of National Building Code-2005, though India has a large variety of climate types, it is predominantly a country with tropical climate. Approximately, 90% of the area has hot-dry, warm-humid, and composite climate. Therefore, climate-responsive buildings, in this context, are designed to avoid the heat gain but at the same time allow adequate daylight into the living space. Some of the passive design strategies adopted to optimize building design that controls heat gain and allows maximum natural light are as follows: • Optimum orientation; • Internal space arrangement (thermal buffer zone/buffer spaces); • Allocation of building openings; • Sizing of openings (limitation of window-wall-ratio and skylight-roof-ration); • Appropriate shading design (façade shading and fenestration shading); and • Adequate daylighting (optimum daylighted area and daylight factor)
Solar-passive building design Thermal Comfort Visual Comfort Reduce energy demand of space-conditioning Reduce energy demand of artificial lighting Reduction in energy consumption and GHG emission Solar-passive building design addresses indoor thermal comfort as well as visual comfort
Solar Passive Related Criteria in GRIHA • The criteria 13 of GRIHA ( i.e. optimize building design to reduce conventional energy demand) addresses integration of solar passive principles in building design. This is a mandatory criterion, which emphasizes on building orientation, use of shading devices, fenestration design, window to wall ratio and achieving day lighting in living spaces. • Criterion 4 – Design to include existing site features. • Criterion 5 – Reduce hard paving on-site and/or provide shaded hard-paved surfaces.
Integration of ECBC with GRIHA Criterion 14 of GRIHA (i.e. optimize energy performance of building within a specified comfort limits) requires mandatory compliance with ECBC for projects that fall in the category of ECBC implementation.
Renewable Energy • The criteria 18 of GRIHA (i.e. renewable energy utilization) makes it mandatory to meet 1% of project internal lighting and air conditioning connected load (or equivalent) by renewable energy. • The Criteria 6 of GRIHA (i.e. enhance outdoor lighting system efficiency and use renewable energy system for meeting outdoor lighting requirement) promotes use of renewable forms of energy to reduce the use of conventional/fossil fuel based energy resources.
First 5 star rated GRIHA building in IIT Kanpur Trees preserved and protected Solar PV and Solar Thermal systems N-S Orientation with shading (roof/window) Outdoor solar lights Lesser paving
Impact of Energy Efficiency measures on costs Key energy efficiency features that added to cost (35 lacs) High performance glazing (Incremental cost of Rs 12.5 lacs) Roof insulation(Incremental cost of 7 lacs) Efficient lighting with controls(incremental cost of 9 lacs) High efficiency chillers/pumps/fans (about 34 TR which is 30% of total tonnage was saved, hence there was a decrease in cost by about 4 lacs) Earth air tunnel (11 lacs) Annual energy savings : 18.5 lacs Built up area is 4240 sqm of which 1912 sqm is air conditioned
Optimization of building material & selection • Initial energy consumption: 240 kWh/m2 yr Building envelope • Brick wall • RCC roof without insulation • Single clear glass for windows 240 kWh/m2 per annum • Cavity brick wall with insulation • Roof insulation with fiber glass • Shading on roof • Double glass for windows 208 kWh/m2 per annum 13% energy savings
Optimization of Lighting Design Lighting optimization • Efficient fixtures • Efficient fixtures & lamps • Efficient layout • Daylight integration 208 kWh/m2 per annum Achievement LPD=1.3W/ft2 Illumination levels as per standards: Laboratory: 400 lux Corridors: 200 lux Work plane (faculty room): 300 lux 168 kWh/m2 per annum 19% energy savings
Optimisation of HVAC system Water-cooled chiller CoP=4.88 (complying with minimum efficiency requirements of the Energy Conservation Building Code HVAC system • Air-cooled chiller 168 kWh/m2 per annum 133 kWh/m2 per annum 21% energy savings
Optimisation of HVAC design Controls used in HVAC system Variable speed drives for chilled water pumps Efficient load management Earth air tunnel for fresh air treatment HVAC system • No controls used in HVAC system 133 kWh/m2 per annum 98 kWh/m2 per annum 26% energy savings
Annual Energy Savings Envelope optimisation Lighting optimisation Efficient chiller Controls for HVAC system Initial energy performance EPI = 240 kWh/m2 per annum EPI = 208 kWh/m2 per annum 61% savings EPI = 168 kWh/m2 per annum EPI = 133 kWh/m2 per annum Final energy performance EPI = 98 kWh/m2 per annum
ADaRSH (Association for Development and Research of Sustainable Habitats ADaRSH is an independent society, registered under the Societies Act, 1860 as a platform for interaction on all relevant issues pertaining to sustainable habitats in the Indian context. It was founded jointly by MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India) and TERI (The Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi) along with some of the experts in the fields related to sustainability of built-environment from across the country. ADaRSH promotes and manages GRIHA – The National Rating System (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) as a design and evaluation tool for green buildings and habitats, and administers the rating.
Registration of projects- current status GRIHA 95 government buildings (MNRE has paid registration fee for 43 projects) 38 projects SVA GRIHA 7 projects (public and private) TOTAL: 140 projects Approximately 7 million sq m registered MNRE has encouraged registration of government projects by committing to pay registration fee for the first 200 Government of India and PSU buildings. Intensive workshops and minimum 3 due diligence site visits are conducted for each registered project
Current incentives from Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India a) Government projects Registration fee for 200 building projects wavered b)Private projects- Project Proponent / Owner (upto 2012) 90% Registration cum Certification fee reimbursed 3 Star for buildings < 5000 sq.m. 4 Star for buildings > 5000 sq.m. c) Project Team (Architects / HVAC Designers)- upto 2012 Rs.2.5 lakhs 3 Star for buildings < 5000 sq.m. Rs. 5.0 lakhs 4 Star for buildings > 5000 sq.m. d)Capital Subsidy on Photovoltaic panels As per MNRE scheme for urban areas e) Municipal Corporations / Urban local bodies Rs.50 lakhs (Corporations) Rs.25 laksh (other ULBs)
Mechanisms for implementation Regulatory Fast track EIA clearance for GRIHA pre-certified projects Minimum 3 Star for all Central Government and Public Sector Undertaking buildings mandatory Minimum 3 Star for allCPWD buildings mandatory Minimum 3 Star for all buildings in Delhi as per the notification of the Delhi Cabinet Minimum 1 Star for all buildings in Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) Kerala PWD has announced adoption of GRIHA Financial 0.25% interest rebate on home loans from SBI Incentives from MNRE (registration fee waiver & cash awards) Incentives from Municipalities (property tax rebate & discount on premium for developers)
PCMC endorses GRIHA • Rebate on premium for developers • Property tax rebate for occupants/ owners of GRIHA compliant homes