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Introduction to Industrial Electronics

Introduction to Industrial Electronics

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Introduction to Industrial Electronics

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  1. Introduction to Industrial Electronics By James Rehg and Glenn Sartori Chapter 1

  2. 1 Industrial electronics deals with • PLCs – computers for industry • Sensors – eyes for PLC • Actuators – hands for PLC • Controllers – PLC helper • But not MATLAB which is the most popular computing tool for engineers

  3. 2 Industrial revolution began mid-? • 1500s – flush toilets, pocket watch, knitting machine, compound microscope • 1600s – refracting telescope, first bacteria, slide rule, steam turbine, adding machine, air pump, universal joint, pressure cooker, steam pump • 1700s – piano, steam engine, mercury thermometer, flying shuttle, capacitor, English dictionary, sextant, spinning jenny, carbonated water, flush toilets (again), submarine, spinning mule, bifocals, circular saw, parachute, self-winding clock, hot-air balloon, steel roller for steel production, threshing machine, power loom, bleaching, steamboat, gas lighting, ambulance, cotton gin, ball bearings, preserving jar, vaccinations, carding machine, metal lathe, soft drinks, lithography, battery, fourdrinier machine

  4. 3 To Automated Manufacturing • Punch cards – Jacquard – 1801 • Numerical engine – Babbage – 1834 • Motorized crane – Babbitt – 1892 • Vacuum tube – AC to DC – 1904 • Vacuum tube diode amplifier – deForest – 1907 • Remote controlled boat – Tesla - 1890

  5. 4 To Automated Manufacturing • Production machines replacing workers – 1919 • Vacuum tubes control DC motors – 1928 • Car frame factory – A.O. Smith – 1930 • Semiconductor diode – Schottky - 1938 • Variable speed AC motor control – 1941 • Electrically powered and controlled oil pipeline in California - 1927

  6. 5 To Automated Manufacturing • 1st computer – ENIAC – 1954 • 1st transistor – Shockley – 1947 • Cybernetics (feedback) – Wiener – 1948 • Robot programming – Chappman – 1954 • Solid-state motor-speed control – 1957 • Robot manufacturing company – Unimation - 1956

  7. 6 To Automated Manufacturing • Computer controlled all-in-one machine – Kearney – 1960 • Unimate 5k-lbf robot 500 lbf loads – 6 DOF – 1961 • PLC – GM Oldsmobile Div – 1968 • Molins Machine – integrated computer controlled batch manufacturing- 1969 • Morat knitting machine – 1970 • Lasers for processing and com - 1960

  8. 7 To Automated Manufacturing • Microprocessor – Ted Hoff – Intel – 1971 • Minicomputer-controlled robot (T3) – Richard Hohn – 1973 • Microcomputer-comtrolled robot by ASEA ABB Inc. 1977 • Apple II microcomputer – 1978 • Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM_ in Japan, US and GB 1980

  9. 8 To Automated Manufacturing • Direct-drive robot arm Adept Corp 1984 • 64-bit microprocessor Intel Corp 1994 • Tag-based PLCs 1998 • Industrial networks (Ethernit/IP, DevicNet, Profibus, …) 2000 • Wireless network for automation 2001

  10. 9 Feedback Industrial Control • Automatically monitors a manufacturing process • Takes action if the process varies from required specifications • Feedback control developed after WWI • Feedback control perfected during WWII • Does not define the industrial process

  11. 10 Manufacturing System • Project – complex, parts are one of a kind. • Job shop • Repetitive • Line • Continuous

  12. 11 Manufacturing System • Project • Job shop - non-complex products with few parts and small production volume • Repetitive • Line • Continuous

  13. 12 Manufacturing System • Project • Job shop • Repetitive - high volume spread over long periods with manual labor smaller than the automation component. • Line • Continuous

  14. 13 Manufacturing System • Project • Job shop • Repetitive • Line - Complex products, assembled in short time due to the large inventory of subassemblies. • Continuous

  15. 14 Manufacturing System • Project • Job shop • Repetitive • Line • Continuous - Highly automated, little manual labor, usually stops only for cleaning and changeover.

  16. Manual Machine

  17. 15 Class of Machine or System • Manual machines - A group of machines operated in manual mode. • Programmable machine • Robot • Material moving system • Material tracking system

  18. Programmable Machine

  19. 16 Class of Machine or System • Manual machines • Programmable machine - A material-processing machine under computer control. • Robot • Material moving system • Material tracking system

  20. Robot – Honda’s ASIMO

  21. Robot – Friend

  22. 17 Class of Machine or System • Manual machines • Programmable machine • Robot - One machine that performs many tasks under computer control. • Material moving system • Material tracking system

  23. Material Moving System

  24. 18 Class of Machine or System • Manual machines • Programmable machine • Robot • Material moving system - An automated system that moves raw material or finished product. • Material tracking system

  25. Material Tracking System

  26. 19 Class of Machine or System • Manual machines • Programmable machine • Robot • Material moving system • Material tracking system - Raw material or finished product tracking system that may read bar codes

  27. Material Storage and Retrieval

  28. 20 Class of Machine or System • Material storage and retrieval system - May be bench top size or whole warehouse size sometimes called ASRS. • Flexible manufacturing cell • Fixed automation machine • Flexible manufacturing system • Continuous process system

  29. Flexible Manufacturing Cell

  30. Flexible Manufacturing Cell

  31. 21 Class of Machine or System • Material storage and retrieval system • Flexible manufacturing cell - A group of related machines that perform a process or step in a larger process. • Fixed automation machine • Flexible manufacturing system • Continuous process system

  32. Fixed Automation Machine

  33. 22 Class of Machine or System • Material storage and retrieval system • Flexible manufacturing cell • Fixed automation machine - Dedicated machine designed to manufacture and assemble parts with a minimum of human interaction. • Flexible manufacturing system • Continuous process system

  34. Flexible Manufacturing System

  35. 23 Class of Machine or System • Material storage and retrieval system • Flexible manufacturing cell • Fixed automation machine • Flexible manufacturing system - One or more manufacturing machines integrated by an automatic material handling system. • Continuous process system

  36. Continuous Process System

  37. 24 Class of Machine or System • Material storage and retrieval system • Flexible manufacturing cell • Fixed automation machine • Flexible manufacturing system • Continuous process system - Commonly used in food, chemical, pharmaceuticals, and paper products.

  38. 25 Manufacturing System Classification • Project - Dominated by manual components - lowest product quality • Job shop • Repetitive • Line • Continuous

  39. 26 Manufacturing System Classification • Project • Job shop – contains mostly manual components but has some automation • Repetitive • Line • Continuous

  40. 27 Manufacturing System Classification • Project • Job shop • Repetitive - Contains many automated components, lacks flexible manufacturing systems, has average product quality • Line • Continuous

  41. 28 Manufacturing System Classification • Project • Job shop • Repetitive • Line - Has excellent product quality and includes flexible manufacturing systems • Continuous

  42. 29 Manufacturing System Classification • Project • Job shop • Repetitive • Line • Continuous - produces the highest quality, has the largest automation component and has the highest need for workers with skills in industrial electronics is:

  43. 30 Experience makes the troubleshooter • faster at the process • better at guessing the fault • both of these

  44. 31 Experienced troubleshooters • take time to think and analyze system data before springing to action • are always busy measuring something while they search for the fault

  45. 32 Regarding troubleshooting, in most cases • a single failure has occurred • multiple system failures have occurred • single failures and multiple failures each occur about half of the time

  46. 33 Regarding software troubleshooting, which one is NOT true? • Software failures are common. • Computer programs almost never fail. • Some knowledge of computer programs is required for troubleshooting. • Well documented software is important for machine troubleshooting. • Software with many inputs may fail due to particular inputs.