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Feeding & Cow Longevity: Opportunites & Challenges

Feeding & Cow Longevity: Opportunites & Challenges

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Feeding & Cow Longevity: Opportunites & Challenges

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  1. Feeding & Cow Longevity: Opportunites & Challenges Randy Shaver Dairy Science Department, UW Madison

  2. The paradox of high yield/DMI!

  3. Wisconsin Holstein sets 72,170 milk production record 2010; Tom & Gin Kestell & Sons, Waldo, WI Ever-Green-View My 1326-ET(EX-92 EX-MS)4-05 365d 3x 72,168 3.9 2787 3.2 2286

  4. WI AgSource DHIA

  5. Herd or High GroupDMI & Feed Efficiency

  6. Grant, 2007 Reno

  7. Ruminal Acid Production Salivary Buffer Flow

  8. The paradox of high grain prices!

  9. Dietary Starch Content 25% - ≥ 30% Starch Diets Common ? Average #2 yellow corn cash price in Minneapolis, MN at 5 year intervals from Sept. 1975 - Aug. 1976 through Sept. 2010 - July. 2011 (USDA ERS, 2011)

  10. Practical forage-NDF range in high-group TMR • High Quality Forages • Large Forage Supply • Forages Favorably Priced 24% forage-NDF i.e. 60% Forage @ 40% NDF • Limited Forage Supply • Forages Expensive • Moderate/Low Quality Forages 16% forage-NDF i.e. 35% Forage @ 46% NDF

  11. Dairy NRC Min. forage NDF & Max. NFC Dietary Guidelines 44% NFC 24% forage-NDF Starchy Grains High Fiber Byproducts 16% forage-NDF 38% NFC

  12. Endproducts of Ruminal CHO Fermentation • NDF • Greater proportion of acetate • Starch • Greater proportion of propionate • Sugar • Greater proportion of butyrate or valerate • Pectin/Soluble Fiber • Greater proportion of acetate • Impact DMI, milk yield & composition, & feed conversions

  13. Overcoming variable ruminal starch digestibilities!

  14. HM Corn Simulation Feed Grainv2.0 Evaluation System

  15. HM Corn Simulation Feed Grainv2.0 Evaluation System

  16. Dry Corn Simulation Feed Grainv2.0 Evaluation System

  17. Dry Corn Simulation Feed Grainv2.0 Evaluation System

  18. Milk Fat Content by Week a a a ab b b Week × Treatment interaction (P < 0.05)

  19. Ammonia Content During Feeding Trial by Treatment

  20. Interactions between Cow Comfort & SARA influence laminitis incidence Cow Likelihood Comfort SARA of Laminitis Good Low Low Good High Moderate Poor Low Moderate Poor High High

  21. Locomotion Scores on Selected WI DairiesData collected by Whitney Auth & Dr. Mike Wolf Winter-2006

  22. Cow comfort wins all around!

  23. The paradox of high protein supplement prices & need to reduce N excretion!

  24. Effect of CP (Solvent SBM) on Milk & Protein Yield(Olmos & Broderick, 2003)

  25. Strategies to improve MNE may allow for improved fertility • Reduced Dietary CP • RUP/RDP Balancing • Rumen Carbo Balancing • RP Amino Acid Supplementation • MUN Monitoring

  26. Souza et al., 2012, UW-Madison

  27. Souza et al., 2012, UW-Madison

  28. Transition cows – Is it diet, facilities, management, or all of the above?

  29. When Cows Leave the Herd(S. Stewart - MN DHIA 10/96 – 10/01) 12% 0.24% 624,614 Cows Leaving 5,749Herds 10% 0.20% 8% 0.16% % Cows Leaving That Left in the 21 Day Period 6% 0.12% Average Risk/Day of`Leaving In a Period. 4% 0.08% 2% 0.04% 0% 0.00% 0-20 21-41 42-62 63-83 84-104 105-125 126-146 147-167 168-188 189-209 210-230 231-251 252-272 273-293 294-314 315-335 336-356 357-377 378-398 399-419 420-440 21 DIM Interval Data Source: Steve Stewart, U. of Minnesota Source: Kent Weigel

  30. Dry-off Calving Far-off Dry Period Close-up Dry Period Or Prefresh Transition Period Post- Fresh Transition Period “Low” “High” Energy Density of Diet

  31. Rationale for Close-Up Diet • Rumen microbial adaptation to starch • Maximize dry matter intake • Decrease fat mobilization • Reduce metabolic disorders • Increase subsequent milk yield

  32. High vs. Low NFC Close-Up Dry Cow Diets

  33. High vs. Low NFC Close-Up Dry Cow Diets

  34. High vs. Low NFC Close-Up Dry Cow Diets

  35. High vs. Low NFC Close-Up Dry Cow Diets

  36. Dry-off Calving • Dry Period • Single Diet Re: Energy/Protein • Possibly 2nd Close-Up Diet Re: DCAD, Vits., Adds. Post- Fresh Transition Period “Low/Moderate” “Moderate/High” Energy Density of Diet

  37. Focus on the management by nutrition interactions!

  38. Some Transition Cow Management by Nutrition Interactions • BCS at dry-off • Dry period length • Days on pre- & post-fresh diets • Stall & bunk stocking densities • Abrupt cow movement (facilities or pens) • Feed mixing & delivery • Feed quality • etc., etc.

  39. Body Condition at Calving • Target = 3.5 • 4+ cows • > Intake depression prior to calving • Poor appetites in early lactation • More metabolic & digestive disorders • Poor fertility

  40. Average = 3.0 Stdev = 0.96

  41. Average = 3.0 Stdev = 0.28

  42. Pack Stocking Density Milking Cows 80 – 100 sq. ft. per cow Transition Cows 120 – 150 sq. ft. per cow

  43. Stall Stocking Density Milking Cows 100% – 120% Transition Cows 80% - 100%

  44. How much bunk space? Milking Cows 18 – 24 linear inches per cow Transition Cows 30 linear inches per cow

  45. The Three Rations Sort Feed, Weather, Feed Bunk Issues Wrong Feed, Mixing too long, Wrong lbsof feed Feed Dry Matter Changes, Moldy Feed, Nutrients Change (c) 2010 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, doing business as the Division of Cooperative Extension of the University of Wisconsin-Extension.

  46. TMR Management Programs • EZfeed • DHI-Provo • FeedWatch • Valley Ag Software • Feed Supervisor • K.S. Dairy Consulting • TMR Tracker • Digi-Star

  47. Operator Performance Deviations 10% % Error 5% 1% Transition Pens: 9% Lactating Pens: .6% Source: Keith Sather, Feed Supervisor

  48. Facing Bunkers