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FON Chapter 9 Life Span Development

FON Chapter 9 Life Span Development

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FON Chapter 9 Life Span Development

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  1. FON Chapter 9 Life Span Development

  2. Longevity Improved by : • Better sanitation • Medicines • Immunizations • Exercise • Nutrition

  3. Longevity Predictors of Longevity: • Health • Happiness • Avoidance of tobacco products • Job satisfaction

  4. Life Expectancy • The number of years a person might live, based on the average for others. • Was 47.3 years at the beginning of the century • Now is 77 years. • Females including African American females outlive males • Those with household incomes greater than $25,000 out live by 3 – 6 years those with household incomes of $10,000 or less.

  5. Infant mortality • Affects life expectancy statistics • Refers to the number of deaths in the first year of life. • Differences in different populations • African American infant mortality double that of Caucasians

  6. Healthy 2020 Goals • Improving the length and quality of life • Eliminating health disparities in certain groups of the population • Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all. Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.

  7. Life Span Development • Begins at conception • Continues throughout the lifespan • Affected by experience and genes • Study is the study of how and why people change over time and how and why they stay the same.

  8. 8 Stages of Development • Infancy – birth to 1 year • Toddler 1- 3 years • Preschool 3-5 years • School age 6 – 12 years • Adolescence 13 – 19 years • Early adulthood – 20 - 40 years • Middle Adulthood - 40 – 65 years • Late Adulthood 65 years and older

  9. Growth and Development • Growth – increase in size of the whole or it’s parts • Development – gradual change and differentiation in function from simple to complex

  10. Principles of Growth and Development • Proceed at a rate that varies from person to person • Are continuous and interdependent with spurts of growth and periods of rest • Proceed from the simple to the complex in a predictable sequence • Vary for specific structures at different times • Total process that involves the whole person and are interrelated, physically, spiritually, emotionally, and mentally

  11. Patterns of Growth • Affected by genes, nutrition, and environment • Inherited traits reside in the chromosomes • 23 pairs of chromosomes, one of each pair from each parent • Decide the sex of the zygote which exists before implantation in the uterus • Females carry xx chromosome s and males carry XY chromosomes

  12. Genetics • Some abnormalities are genetic such as • Sickle cell disease • Tay-Sachs disease • Phenylketonuria • Spina bifida • Genetic testing possible • Ethical considerations

  13. The Family • Base unit of society • Basic functions: protection , nurturance, education, sustenance, socialization • Responsible for : formal education, instilling mores, and ideals

  14. Types of Families • Nuclear • Extended • Single- parent 40% result from divorce • Blended • Social contract and cohabitation • Homosexual • Adoptive • Foster

  15. Family Patterns • Autocratic – children controlled by rigid rules • Patriarchal – male works, controls finances and makes decisions • Matriarchal – female dominates child rearing, homemaking, finances • Democratic – adult members are equals, children treated with respect as individuals

  16. Stages of Family Development • Engagement or Commitment Stage • Decisions re housing, work, furnishings etc. • Receive support or opposition Establishment Stage – from wedding to birth of first child. Adjustment from single to married life Expectant stage – From conception through pregnancy, requires physiological and psychological adjustment Surrogacy – woman is artificially inseminated and gives up parental rights to the father

  17. Stages of Family Development Parenthood stage – less free time, less sleep, less time together, less intimate sexual time Disengagement stage of parenthood – role of parenting changes Senescence Stage – requires a large range of changes

  18. Causes of Family Stress • Some causes – Abuse whether physical, emotional financial, sexual, or neglectful, Divorce - Child may feel abandoned and unloved, other factors – bitterness, conflict, prior relationship with parent, finances, lifestyle changes, possible neighborhood changes Chronic illness affects finances, family stability, support systems Problems working outside the home, childcare

  19. Family Stress • Children feel stress when needs are not met, school demands and parental expectations • Allow children so express feelings and let them know it is all right to have uneasy feelings

  20. Erickson’s Stages and Tasks of Psychosocial Development • Infancy – Birth to one year – trust vs mistrust • Toddler - 1-3 Autonomy vs shame • Preschool – 4-6 Initiative vs guilt • School age 7 – 11 Industry vs inferiority • Adolescence 12 – 19 Identity vs role confusion • Young adulthood – 20-44 Intimacy vs isolation • Middle adulthood – 45 – 65 Generativity vs stagnation • Late adulthood – 65+ Ego integrity vs despair

  21. Cognitive and Intellectual Development Jean Piaget • Sensorimotor - Birth to 2 years – reflexes, coordination, uses sensorimotor skills to learn the world • Preoperational thought - 2 – 6 years – egocentric thinking, trial and error to discover new traits, time in present only, uses symbols, develops logical intuitive thinking, focuses on a single aspect of an object causing some distortion, imaginative, gradually begins to de-center

  22. Cognitive and intellectual development Jean Piaget • Concrete operational thought – 7 – 11 applies logic to understand, more realistic, realizes other viewpoints, improves memory, focuses on more than one task, recognizes cause and effect, identifies behavior outcome, understands basic ideas of conversation and other concrete ideas • Formal operational thought – 12+ uses a systematic problem solving approach, recognizes past, present, future, abstract and hypothetical thought, moves from real to possible, interested in social issues

  23. Communication and Language • Born with language ability • Requires intact physiological functioning – auditory apparatus, intelligence, need to communicate, stimulation • Development: • 3 months - babbles practicing different sounds • 1 year – 2 – 3 words with meaning, imitates animals, 25% intelligible • 2 years – 2 – 3 word phrases, telegraphic speech, 300 word vocabulary 65% intelligible

  24. Communication and Language • 3 years – 4 – 5 word sentences 900 word vocabulary, 70-80% clear, learns 6 – 10 words per day • 4-5 years – 1500 – 2100 word vocabulary, uses complete sentences, totally intelligible • 6 – 7 years – 800 – 14,000 word vocabulary, uses if, because, and why

  25. Communication and Language • Girls learn language earlier than boys, firstborn earlier than latter born and multiples learn later than singles

  26. Infancy 1 – 12 Months • Cephalocaudal and proximodistal growth • Gains 1.5 lb /month first 5 months • Triples wt. by one year, increases length by 50% • Gains fat first months, bone and muscle at 8 months • Vital signs – apical rate decreases to 130 at 2 months, take for 1 minute and note rate, volume and rhythm, respiratory rate 30 at 12 months and BP up to 90/60.

  27. Infancy 1 – 12 Months • Dentition – begins at 5-6 months. Brush teeth as they appear. Don’t give anything but water for night bottle to prevent tooth decay. Propping a bottle can lead to aspiration. Holding infant important for love and security • Motor Development – 2 months can hold head up, can sit up by 7 months • Locomotion – Crawl on abdomen at 7 months, creep at 9 months, stand and walk at 8 – 15 months

  28. Psychosocial Development • Develop trust when needs are met

  29. Cognitive and Intellectual Development • In senseorimotor stage of development, learns by interacting with environment • 1 – 4 months learns with eyes and ears, use both eyes together by 4 months, • 4 – 8 months recognizes and imitates, reaches and grasps • At 3 months responds differently to parents • 4 months recognizes voices • 8 months become anxious when separated from caregiver • 9 months alarmed by strangers • Children with good attachment relationships show separation anxiety

  30. Health Promotion • Nutrition Breast milk – ultimate health food • Formula or breast milk sufficient for 4-6 months • Determine adequate feeding by weight • Inadequate feeding shown by cranky, fussy, little weight gain, wrinkly skin • Overfeeding shown by vomiting after feeding and frequent watery stools • Begin iron supplements or in foods at 5-6 months • Avoid citrus, egg whites, wheat flour to avoid allergies

  31. Health Promotion Nutrition • Introduce solid foods one at a time, allowing several days between foods, introduce cereals first followed by fruits, vegetables, and meats last • Foods with high probability of choking are grapes, popcorn, raisins, hot dogs, chicken nuggets • Begin healthy eating habits at this age • 8-9 months give finger , mashed, or junior food • 9 months begin training cup

  32. Sleep, Play Activity, Safety • Newborns and infants sleep 18 hrs. out of 24 • End of 3 months sleep patterns emerge • 12 months sleep 12 hours at night

  33. SIDS Prevention • Sleep on back • Avoid cigarette smoke • Avoid soft bedding and pillows • Well ventilated room • Breastfeed if possible • Regular medical checkups

  34. Play • Play is important for learning

  35. Safety Rules • Never leave infant unattended on elevated surface, high chair, stroller, walker etc. • Secure stairways and exits • Keep crib sides up and mattress at lowest setting • Never leave unattended in bath even for a few seconds • Windows locked and secured with child guards

  36. Safety Rules • Never use plastic bags or covers near infants • Avoid pillows • Use cribs that meet US Consumer Product Safety rules to prevent strangulation • Remove wires and dangling cords, cover outlets • Inspect toys for long strings and small removable parts

  37. Safety Rules • Use one piece constructed pacifiers • Ban balloons • Avoid nuts, hard candies, popcorn, foods easily aspirated • Lock up all poisons and medicines • Avoid drinking hot fluids when holding an infant • Check temperature of foods and formula • Turn pot handles to back of stove and remove reachable knobs

  38. Safety Rules • Avoid smoking near infants • Keep infants away from hot stoves, fireplaces, barbecues • Use flame retardant sleepwear • Never say medication is candy • Keep poison control phone number near • Keep plants out of reach • Use plastic rather than glass • Remove toys and household items with sharp points • Inspect for chipped pain on surfaces painted before 1978 • Keep knives and forks away from children • Supervise when playing around animals and pets

  39. Safety Rules • Teach about street dangers and supervise play • Teach never to go with strangers • Teach the use of the telephone for emergencies • Instruct children that others should not touch private body parts and report any occurrence • Use safety seats and restraints when transporting

  40. Developmental Tasks of Infancy • Establish trust and meaningful relationships • Recognize primary caregiver • Develop attachment behavior • Recognize objects • Develop exploration skills • Begin vocalization, develop nonverbal communication system, imitate simple vocalizations

  41. Developmental Tasks of Infancy • Develop muscular control, eye – hand coordination, object manipulation • Develop mobility: crawling, creeping, walking • Establishes patterns of living: eating, sleeping, elimination • Begins to develop independent living skills: self feeding, undressing, walking, communication of needs

  42. Toddler: Physical Characteristics • Slower rate of growth • Develop a more proportionate body appearance • Exaggerated lumbar lordosis, protruding abdomen • All 20 teeth, brush • Pulse 90-120 • BP 89-100/64 • Respirations 20-30

  43. Toddler: Neuromuscular Development • Walking, climbing stairs, hopping, running , pulling, holding on tight • Develops fine motor skills: scribbles and copies a circle

  44. Toddler: Toilet Training • Reach needed maturity at 18 – 24 months • Bowel control achieved first • Night time control develops last • Advise parents to praise success, ignore accidents • Praise develops sense of goodness and pride • Punishing develops shame • If kept in diapers will develop doubt

  45. Toddler Psychosocial Development • Struggles with autonomy, self-control in opposition to shame and doubt according to Erikson • Use of no gives sense of control • Repetitive rituals are consoling, helpful to continue during hospitalizations • Temper tantrums common, give sense of control, signal frustration, best ignored • Give choices only when both are acceptable

  46. Toddler: Principals of Discipline • Be consistent with rules • Follow through, say no only when you mean it • Model approved behavior • Administer punishment in a non hostile atmosphere and immediately • Express trust in child • Remove temptation • Offer positive reinforcement

  47. Toddler: Cognitive and Intellectual Development • 12 – 24 months completes stage of learning through sensorimotor means • Preoperational thought develops, learns through language • Can connect activities to memories • Remains egocentric

  48. Toddler Communication and Language • Identifies objects by use, • Noun and verb sentences • At 2.5 450 word vocabulary, halo words no and me • 3.5 answers questions, uses sentences, recites TV commercials, 900 words • Encourage parents to read to child

  49. Toddler: Health Promotion • Nutrition: follow MyPyramid guidelines • Needs 24 oz milk /day • Small portions, finger foods • Give 1 tablespoon of solid food per year of life • Give adequate solids to avoid iron deficiency

  50. Toddler: Health Promotion • Needs 12 hrs. sleep at night plus daily nap • Reduce activity before bedtime • Establish a simple ritual • Make bedtime pleasurable • Reassure child he/she is not alone • Use a night light • Expect disruptions and set backs