Life Span Development Study of the changes that occur as people grow up and grow old From conception to death
Babies • Grasp reflex • Rooting reflex
Growth • Lift head 3-4 months • Rolls Over 4 months • Grasp objects 5-6 months • Crawls 8-10 months • Walk 12-13 months • Maturation • internally programmed growth
Intellectual Development • Schemes • plans of knowing • Assimilation • try to fit the world into their scheme • Accommodation • change their scheme to fit the characteristics of the world
Object Permanence • Things continue to exist even though they can not see or touch them • http://youtube.com/watch?v=NjBh9ld_yIo
Representational Thought • Picture things in their head
Conservation • Principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance changes • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o
Piaget's Stages • Sensory Motor (0-2 yr....) • infant uses schemes that primarily involve their body and sensations
Piaget's Stages • Preoperational Stage (2-6 yr.....) • when the child begins to use mental images or symbols to understand things
Piaget's Stages • Concrete Operational Stage (6-12 yr.....) • able to use logical schemes but limited to concrete objects
Piaget's Stages • Formal Operational Stage (12-adult) • able to solve abstract problems
Mental Retardation • People less able to learn and understand than most at the same age • I.Q. less than 70 • Can be due to birth trauma, brain injury, disease
Emotional Development • Children become attached to certain important people • Imprinting • attachment is a sudden, virtually permanent learning process • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UIU9XH-mUI
Emotional Development • Humans • 6 months can differentiate between people • 6 months to 3 yrs. Attachment becomes strong • separation anxiety 8-10 months
Socialization • Learning the roles of behavior of the culture in which you are born and grow up in
Development of Language • Must learn to make sign • Must give sign meaning • Must learn grammar • Talking 13 months to 2 years • 2 years 50 word vocabulary • From 18 months to 5 years children add 5-10 words a day to their vocabulary • Telegraphic speech • incomplete, leaving words out but statements get their point across
Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development • Oral Stage (1yr) • pleasure through mouth • Anal Stage (2yr) • pleasure through bathroom • Phallic Stage (3-5yrs) • pleasure through genitals • Latency Stage (5yr) • child explores the world • Genital Stage (Adolescence) • receives pleasure from giving and getting
Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development • Oedipal conflict • Boy child wants mom • Electra Complex • Girl child wants dad • On an unconscious level the child become a rival of the parent of the same sex • sublimation • redirection of sexual impulses
Cognitive Development Approach • Stress cognitive or thinking in development • Child is the shaper • Moral development • Kohlberg(1968) • at every age children know right from wrong
Kohlberg • 6 stages of moral development • 1st children totally egocentric • 2nd “market place” “work the system” • 3rd sensitive to others needs and wants • 4th law and order • 5th concerned if law is just • 6th golden rule
Learning Theories of Development • Conditioning • Shape child’s behavior through rewards and punishment • Imitation • Observing others and acting like them BoBo Doll • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdh7MngntnI
Harlow • Creature comfort • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlfOecrr6kI
Erikson’s Stages • Trust vs Mistrust • If an infant is well cared for , she will develop faith in the future.But if she experiences too much uncertainty about being taken care of , she will come to look at the world with fear and suspicion.
Erikson’s Stages • Autonomy vs Doubt • Here the child learns self-control and self-assertion. But if he receives too much criticism , he will be ashamed of himself and have doubts about his independence.
Erikson’s Stages • Initiative vs. Guilt • When the child begins to make her own decisions , constant discouragement or punishment could lead to guilt and loss of initiative.
Erikson’s Stages • Industry vs. Inferiority • The child masters skills and takes pride in his competence. Too much criticism of his work at this stage can lead to long-term feelings or inferiority.
Erikson’s Stages • Identity vs. Role Confusion • The teenager tries to develop her own separate identity while “fitting in” with her friends. Failure leads to confusion over who she is.
Erikson’s Stages • Intimacy vs. Isolation • A person secure in his own identity can proceed to an intimate partnership in which he makes compromises for another. The isolated person may have many affairs or even a long-term relationship but always avoids true closeness.
Erikson’s Stages • Generativity vs. Stagnation • A person who becomes stagnated is absorbed in herself and tries to hang onto the past. Generativity involves a productive life which will serve as an example to the next generation.
Erikson’s Stages • Integrity vs.Despair • Some people look back over life with a sense of satisfaction, and accept both the bad and the good. Others face death with nothing but regrets.