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LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT

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LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT

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  1. LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  2. Infant Toddler Preschooler School-aged Adolescent Early adult Middle-aged adult Late-aged adult OBJECTIVES • Upon completion, the student should be able to: • Compare and contrast the physiological and psychosocial characteristics of the following life-span development stages: Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  3. Introduction • People change over the span of a lifetime. • There are obvious changes in size and appearance. • There are also changes in vital signs, body systems and psychosocial development. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  4. Infancy: birth to 12 months Toddler: 12 to 36 months Preschool age: 3-5 years School age: 6-12 years Adolescence: 13-18 years Early adulthood: 20-40 years Middle adulthood: 41-60 years Late adulthood: 61 years and older Introduction Lifetime is identified in developmental stages: Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  5. InfancyPhysiological Development – Vital Signs • Greatest changes in the range of vital signs are in the pediatric patient. • Younger the child, the more rapid are the pulse and respirations. • Normal range for blood pressure is related to the age and weight of the infant, tending to increase with age. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  6. InfancyPhysiological Development – Weight • Normal birth weight of an infant usually is between 3.0 and 3.5 kg. • Infants weight usually drops about 5-10% in the first week of life due to extracellular fluid losses. • Infants weight should double by 4-6 months and triple at 9-12 months. • Infant’s head is equal to 25% of total body weight. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  7. InfancyPhysiological Development - Cardiovascular System • Transition from fetal to pulmonary circulation occurs within the first few days of life. • Shortly after birth, the ductus venosus, a blood vessel that connects the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava in the fetus, constricts. • This causes a change in blood pressure and the foramen ovale, opening in the interatrial septum of the fetal heart, closes. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  8. InfancyPhysiological Development - Cardiovascular System • Ductus arteriosus, blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery and the aorta in the fetus, also constricts after birth. • Once closed, blood can no longer bypass the lungs by moving from the pulmonary trunk directly into the aorta. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  9. Fetal Circulation Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  10. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Pulmonary System • First breath an infant takes must be forceful, because until that moment the lungs have been collapsed. • After the first powerful breath begins to expand the lungs, breathing becomes easier. • Infant’s airways are shorter, narrower, less stable, and more easily obstructed than at any other stage in life. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  11. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Pulmonary System • Infants are primarily “nose breathers” (or obligate) until at least 4 weeks of age. • Infant’s lung tissue is fragile and prone to barotrauma. • There are fewer alveoli with decreased collateral ventilation. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  12. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Pulmonary System • The infant’s chest wall is less rigid than an adult’s, and the ribs are positioned horizontally, causing diaphragmatic breathing. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  13. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Renal System • Kidneys are not able to produce concentrated urine. • Can easily become dehydrated and develop a water and electrolyte imbalance. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  14. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Immune System • Certain antibodies pass from the maternal blood into the fetal bloodstream – fetus acquires some of the mother’s active immunities against pathogens. • Known as naturally acquired passive immunities – remain effective for 6 –12 months. • Breast-fed baby also receives antibodies through the breast milk to many of the diseases the mother has had. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  15. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Nervous System • Sensation is present in all portions of the body at birth. • Feel pain, but lack ability to localize it and isolate a response to it. • Motor and sensory development are most advanced in the cranial nerves at birth – serve a life-sustaining function and protective reflexes. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  16. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Nervous System: Reflex Development • Several reflexes that disappear over time. • Moro Reflex: (startle reflex). Throws arms wide, spreading his fingers and then grabbing instinctively with the arms and fingers. Reflex should be brisk and symmetrical. Asymmetric Moro reflex may imply a paralysis or weakness on one side of the body. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  17. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Nervous System: Reflex Development (cont) • Palmar Grasp: Strong reflex in the full-term newborn. Elicited by placing a finger firmly in the infant’s palm. • Rooting Reflex: Causes the hungry infant to turn his head to the right or left when a hand or cloth touches his cheek. • Sucking Reflex: Stroking the infant’s lips causes a sucking movement. • Both rooting and sucking should be present in all full-term babies and last until 3-4 months old. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  18. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Nervous System: Fontanels • Allow for compression of the head during childbirth and for rapid growth of the brain during early life. • Posterior fontanelle usually closes in 2-3 months. • Anterior closes between 9-18 months. • Anterior used to provide information on hydration. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  19. InfancyPhysiologic Development - Nervous System:Sleep • Newborn usually sleep to 16-18 hours daily. • Start to sleep through the night within 2-4 months. • Normal infant is easily aroused. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  20. InfancyMusculoskeletal System • Extremities grow in length from growth plates, which are located on each end of the long bones. • Growth plates, or epiphyseal plates, are secondary bone-forming centers that are separated by cartilage from larger bones. • As the epiphysis grows, it becomes part of the larger bone. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  21. Epiphyseal Plate Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  22. InfancyMusculoskeletal system • Factors affecting bone development and growth include nutrition, exposure to sunlight, growth hormone, thyroid hormone, genetic factors and general health. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  23. InfancyOther Developmental Characteristics • At 2 months of age, the infant is able to track objects with eyes and recognize familiar faces. • At 3 months of age, the infant is able to move objects to his mouth with hands and display primary emotions with distinct facial expressions. • At 4 months of age, the infant is able to drool without swallowing and begins to reach out to people. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  24. InfancyOther Developmental Characteristics • At 5 months of age, the infant should be sleeping through the night without waking for a feeding; able to discriminate between family and strangers. • At 5-7 months of age, teeth begin to appear. • At 6 months of age, the infant can sit upright in a high chair and begin to make one-syllable sounds. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  25. InfancyOther Developmental Characteristics • At 7 months of age, the infant has a fear of strangers and moods can quickly shift from crying to laughing. • At 8 months of age, the infant begins to respond to the word “no”, can sit alone, can play “peek-a-boo”. • At 9 months of age, the infant responds to adult anger. Able to pull himself up to a standing position and explores objects by mouthing, sucking, chewing, and biting them. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  26. InfancyOther Developmental Characteristics • At 10 months of age, the infant pays attention to his name and crawls well. • At 11 months of age, the infant attempts to walk without assistance and begins to show frustration about restrictions. • At 12 months of age, the infant can walk with help, and knows his own name. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  27. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Family Processes and Reciprocal Socialization • Psychosocial development of an individual begins at birth and develops as a result of instincts, drives, capacities, and interactions with the environment. • Key component of that environment is the family. • Interactions with their families help them to grow and change and help their families do the same (reciprocal socialization). Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  28. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Crying • Newborn’s only means of communication. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  29. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Attachment • Bonding is initially based on secure attachment, or infant’s sense that his needs will be met by his caregivers. • Consistent with healthy development, and leads to a child who is bold in his explorations of the world and competent in dealing with it. • Important for this sense of security to develop within the first 6 months of an infant’s life. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  30. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Anxious Resistant Attachment • Infant is uncertain about whether or not his caregivers will be responsive or helpful when needed. • Leads to a child who is always prone to separation anxiety, causing him to be clinging and anxious about exploring the world. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  31. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Anxious Avoidant Attachment • Occurs when the infant has no confidence that he will be responded to helpfully when he seeks care. • Causes him to attempt to live without the love and support of others. • Most extreme cases result from repeated rejection or prolonged institutionalization and can lead to a variety of personality disorders from compulsive self-sufficiency to persistent delinquency. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  32. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Trust vs. Mistrust • Birth to 1 ½ years of age, infant goes through this stage. • Infant wants world to be orderly, if so he develops trust based on consistent parental care. • If life begins with irregular and inadequate care, he develops anxiety and insecurity – can lead to feelings of mistrust and hostility, which may in turn develop into antisocial or even criminal behavior. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  33. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Scaffolding • Infants learn by this process. • From infancy and throughout their school years. • Building on what they already know. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  34. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Temperament • Infant can be classified as easy, difficult, slow-to-warm-up child. • Easy Child: Characterized by regularity of bodily functions, low or moderate intensity of reactions, and acceptance of new situations. • Difficult Child: Characterized by irregularity of bodily functions, intense reactions and withdrawal from new situations. • Slow-to-warm-up: Low intensity of reactions and a somewhat negative mood. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  35. InfancyPsychosocial Development:Situational Crisis and Parental-Separation Reactions • Good relationships with parents usually follow a predictable sequence of behaviors when they experience a situational crisis. • First stage of parental separation reaction is protest; second stage is despair; last stage is detachment or withdrawal. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  36. Toddler Heart Rate: 80-110 Respiratory Rate: 24-40 Systolic BP: 95-105 Preschoolers Heart Rate: 70-110 Respiratory Rate: 22-34 Systolic BP: 75-110 Toddler and Preschool AgePhysiological Development Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  37. Toddler and PreschoolerPhysiological Development • Cardiovascular System: Capillary beds are now better developed and assist in thermoregulation of the body. Hemoglobin levels approach normal adult levels at this point. • Pulmonary System: Alveoli increase in number, providing more surfaces for gas exchange. • Renal System: Kidneys are well developed by the toddler years. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  38. Toddler and Preschool AgePhysiological Development • Immune System: Passive immunity born with the infant is lost; child becomes more susceptible to minor respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. • Nervous system: 90% of adult weight. Myelination has increased, which allows for effortless walking as well as other basic skills. Fine motor skills develop. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  39. Toddler and Preschool AgePhysiological Development • Musculoskeletal System:muscle mass and bone density increase during this period. • Dental System:all of the primary teeth have erupted by the age of 36 months. • Senses: visual acuity is at 20/30 during the toddler years, hearing reaches maturity at 3-4 years of age. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  40. Toddler and Preschool AgePsychosocial Development:Cognition • Use actual words about 10 months. • Word meaning occurs about 1 year of age. • 3-4 years old they have mastered the basic of language. • 18-24 months begin to understand cause and effect. • 24-36 months the develop “magical thinking” and engage in play-acting. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  41. Toddler and Preschool AgePsychosocial Development:Play • Exploratory behavior accelerates at this stage. • Able to play simple games and follow basic rules. • Begins to display signs of competitiveness. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  42. Toddler and Preschool AgePsychosocial Development:Sibling Relationships • Younger children often see only the apparent privileges extended to the older children: • Later bedtimes • Freedom to come and go Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  43. Toddler and Preschool AgePsychosocial Development:Peer-Group Functions • Peers provide a source of information about other families and the outside world. • Interaction with peers offers opportunities for learning skills, comparing oneself to others, and feeling part of a group. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  44. Toddler and Preschool AgeParenting Styles and Their Effects • Three Basic Styles of Parenting: • Authoritarian • Authoritative • Permissive Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  45. Toddler and Preschool Age:Authoritarian • Demanding and desire instant obedience from a child. • Child is punished for even asking the reason for some decision or directive. • Leads to low self esteem and low competence. • Boys are often hostile and girls are often shy. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  46. Toddler and Preschool Age:Authoritative • Respond to the needs and wishes of their children. • Believe in parental control, attempt to explain their reasons to the child. • Expect mature behavior and will enforce rules, but encourage independence and actualization of potential. • Parents believe that both they and children have rights and try to maintain a happy balance between the two. • Usually leads to children who are self-assertive, independent, friendly, and cooperative. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  47. Toddler and Preschool Age:Permissive • Take a tolerant, accepting view of their children’s behavior, including aggressive behavior and sexual behavior. • Rarely punish or make demands of their children. • May be “permissive-indifferent” or “permissive-indulgent”. • Style may lead to impulsive, aggressive children who have low self-reliance, low self-control, low maturity, and lack responsible behavior. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  48. Toddler and Preschool AgeDivorce and Child Development • Divorce results in a physical change in the way of life. • Psychological life is also touched. • Effects depend on the child’s age, cognitive and social competencies, amount of dependency on parents, how parents interact with each other and the child, to the type of day care. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  49. Toddler and Preschool AgeDivorce and Child Development • Toddler and preschoolers commonly express feelings of shock, depression and a fear that their parents no longer love them. • Believe the divorce centers on them. • Parent’s ability to respond to a child’s needs greatly influences the ultimate effects of divorce on the child. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development

  50. Toddler and Preschool AgeTelevision • TV violence increases levels of aggression in toddlers and preschoolers. • Increases passive acceptance of the use of aggression by others. Paramedic Lecture – Life Span Development