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  1. 8 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Intelligence John W. Santrock

  2. Intelligence • The Concept of Intelligence • Controversies and Group Comparisons • The Development of Intelligence • The Extremes of Intelligence

  3. The Concept of Intelligence What Is Intelligence? • Similar to thinking and memory skills • Cannot be directly measured • Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences • Individual differences are stable, consistent

  4. The Concept of Intelligence Intelligence Tests • The Binet Tests • Mental age (MA)— individual’s level of mental development relative to others • Intelligence quotient (IQ)— individual’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 • Normal distribution — symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean

  5. The Concept of Intelligence The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores Fig. 8.1

  6. The Concept of Intelligence The Wechsler Scales • Overall IQ • Verbal IQ • Six verbal subscales • Performance IQ • Five performance subscales

  7. The Concept of Intelligence Group Tests • Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests are individually administered • Requires extensive information outside testing situation • More convenient and economical than individual tests, but examiner cannot • Establish rapport • Determine level of anxiety

  8. The Concept of Intelligence The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests • Intelligence tests: • substantially correlated with school performance • moderately correlated with work performance; correlation decreases as experience increases • IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations about individuals • Other factors also affect success

  9. The Concept of Intelligence Theories of Multiple Intelligences • Controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities • Spearman’s two-factor theory: factor analysis correlates test scores into clusters or factors • Thurstone’s multiple-factor theory; seven abilities • Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences; certain cognitive abilities can survive brain damage

  10. Spearman’s theory that individuals have both general intelligence and specific intelligences Two-factortheory Intelligence is seven primary mental abilities: verbal comprehension, word fluency, number ability, spatial visualization, associative memory, reasoning, perceptual speed Multiple-factortheory Eight types of intelligence: verbal, math, spatial, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, and naturalist skills Gardner’s Theory The Concept of Intelligence Theories of Multiple Intelligences

  11. The Concept of Intelligence Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom • Allow students to discover and explore domains in which they have natural curiosity and talent • Attention given to understanding oneself and others

  12. The Concept of Intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory • Three main types of intelligence • Analytic • Creative • Practical • Assessing Sternberg Triarchic Ability Theory (STAT) • Effective in predicting college GPA • More research needed

  13. The Concept of Intelligence Triarchic Theory in the Classroom • Analytic ability favored in conventional schools • Creative students may be reprimanded or marked down for nonconformist answers • Practical students may do better outside school

  14. The Concept of Intelligence Emotional Intelligence • Perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively • Four aspects • Perceiving emotions • Understanding emotions • Facilitating thought • Managing emotions

  15. The Concept of Intelligence Comparing the Intelligences Fig. 8.3

  16. The Concept of Intelligence Do People Have One or Many Intelligences? • Many argue research base to support theories not yet developed • Some say Gardner’s classification seems arbitrary • Some experts who argue for general intelligence believe individuals also have specific intellectual abilities

  17. The Concept of Intelligence The Influence of Heredity and Environment • Genetic Influences • Jensen argued heredity; studies of twins • Adoption studies: educational levels of biological parents better predictor of IQ • Heritability: fraction of variance in IQ in a population that is attributed to genetics

  18. The Concept of Intelligence The Influence of Heredity and Environment • Environmental Influences • Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably • Parent communication • Schooling • Intelligence test scores increase each year around the world • Flynn effect

  19. The Concept of Intelligence Group Comparisons and Issues • Cross-cultural comparisons problematic • Different cultures define intelligence differently • Practical and academic intelligence can develop independently • Cultural bias in testing • Culture-fair tests: intelligence tests intended not to be culturally biased

  20. Ethnic Comparisons • The Bell Curve • African Americans students average lower intelligence test scores than White students • Individual scores vary considerably • SES may have more effect than ethnicity; gap narrows in college

  21. Ethnic and Gender Comparisons • Stereotype threat— fear of confirming negative stereotypes raises anxiety in testing • Some studies confirm existence • Others believe stereotype threat is exaggerated to explain gap • Gender differences in intellectual abilities • Males more likely to have extremely high or low scores

  22. The Development of Intelligence Tests of Infant Intelligence • Gesell • Distinguishes normal from abnormal infants • Four categories of behavior • Motor • Language • Adaptive • Personal-social • Combined overall score is developmental quotient (DQ)

  23. The Development of Intelligence Tests of Infant Intelligence • Bayley Scales of Infant Development • Three components • Mental scale • Motor scale • Infant behavior profile • Diagnoses developmental delays • Overall scores do not correlate highly with IQ scores obtained later in childhood

  24. The Development of Intelligence Tests of Infant Intelligence • Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence • Increasingly being used • Focuses on infant’s ability to process information • Obtains similar results cross-culturally • Correlated with measures of intelligence in older children

  25. The Development of Intelligence Stability and Change in Intelligence through Adolescence • Group scores remain stable • Strong relation between IQ scores obtained at ages 6, 8, and 9 and IQ scores obtained at 10 • Correlation between IQ in preadolescent years and 18 still statistically significant • Individual scores vary more • As much as 40 points in one study

  26. The Development of Intelligence Intelligence in Adulthood • Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence • Crystallized intelligence • Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age • Fluid intelligence • Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on • Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cohort testing

  27. The Development of Intelligence Fluid and Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span Fig. 8.7

  28. The Development of Intelligence The Seattle Longitudinal Study • Spatial orientation • Inductive reasoning • Perceptual speed • Since 1956, studied • Vocabulary • Verbal memory • Number computations • Criticism: intellectual abilities more likely to decline in cross-sectional rather than longitudinal assessments

  29. The Development of Intelligence Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities Fig. 8.8

  30. The Development of Intelligence Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons of Intellectual Change Fig. 8.9

  31. The Development of Intelligence Cognitive Mechanics • Hardware of the mind • Speed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input, attention, memory, organizing, and discrimination • Strong influence of biology and heredity • Decline with age

  32. The Development of Intelligence Cognitive Pragmatics • Culture-based software of the mind • Skills include • Reading and writing • Language comprehension • Educational qualifications • Professional skills • Knowledge about self and life skills • Can improve with aging

  33. The Development of Intelligence Wisdom • Expert knowledge on practical aspects of life permitting excellent judgment about important matters • High levels of wisdom are rare • Emerges late adolescence and early adulthood • Factors other than age are critical • Personality-related factors better predictors of wisdom

  34. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Mental Retardation • Condition of limited mental ability • Low IQ on traditional test of intelligence • Difficulty adapting to everyday life • Onset of characteristics by age 18 • Some causes include • Organic retardation • Cultural-familial retardation • Brain damage due to accident

  35. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Classification of Mental Retardation based on IQ Fig. 8.11

  36. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Giftedness • Above-average intelligence; IQ averaged 150 on Stanford-Binet • Precocity • March to their own drummer • Passion to master • Intelligence and creativity not same thing; most creative people are quite intelligent but reverse not necessarily true

  37. Creativity Ability to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems Convergent thinking Gives one correct answer; is characteristic of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests Divergentthinking Produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Creative Thinking

  38. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Steps in the Creative Process • Preparation • Incubation • Insight • Evaluation • Elaboration • Not all creative people follow in linear sequence

  39. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Characteristics of Creative Thinkers • Flexibility and playful thinking • Inner motivation • Willingness to risk • Objective evaluation of work

  40. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Changes in Adulthood • Individuals’ most creative products were generated in their thirties • 80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50 • Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before declining • Age of decline varies by domain

  41. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Living a More Creative Life • Try to be surprised by something every day • Try to surprise at least one person every day • Write down each day what surprised you and how you surprised others • When something sparks your interest, follow it • Wake up in the morning with a specific goal • Take charge of your schedule • Spend time in stimulating settings

  42. 8 The End