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  1. 8 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Intelligence John W. Santrock

  2. The Concept of Intelligence What Is Intelligence? • Similar to thinking and memory skills • Cannot be directly measured • Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences • Individual differences are stable, consistent

  3. The Concept of Intelligence Intelligence Tests • Individual Tests • The Binet Tests • Mental age (MA)— individual’s level of mental development relative to others • Chronological age (CA) — age from birth • Intelligence quotient (IQ)— individual’s MA divided CA, multiplied by 100 • Normal distribution — symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean

  4. The Concept of Intelligence The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores Fig. 8.1

  5. The Concept of Intelligence The Wechsler Scales • WAIS-IV — for adults • WISC-IV — for children • Provides overall IQ • Measures verbal IQ • Six verbal subscales • Measures performance IQ • Five performance subscales

  6. The Concept of Intelligence The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests • Intelligence tests: • Tools dependant upon user skill and knowledge • Substantially correlated with school performance • Moderately correlated with work performance; correlation decreases as experience increases • IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations; self-fulfilling prophecies • Measures only current performance • Other factors also affect success

  7. The Concept of Intelligence Theories of Multiple Intelligences • Controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities • Spearman’s two-factor theory: factor analysis correlates test scores into clusters or factors • Thurstone’s multiple-factor theory; seven abilities • Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences; certain cognitive abilities can survive brain damage

  8. Spearman’s theory that individuals have both general intelligence and specific intelligences Two-factortheory Intelligence is seven primary mental abilities: verbal comprehension, word fluency, number ability, spatial visualization, associative memory, reasoning, perceptual speed Multiple-factortheory Eight types of intelligence: verbal, math, spatial, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, and naturalist skills Gardner’s Theory The Concept of Intelligence Theories of Multiple Intelligences

  9. The Concept of Intelligence Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom • Allow students to discover and explore domains in which they have natural curiosity and talent • Attention given to understanding oneself and others

  10. The Concept of Intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory • Three main types of intelligence • Analytic • Creative • Practical • Assessing Sternberg Triarchic Ability Theory (STAT) • Effective in predicting college GPA • More research needed

  11. The Concept of Intelligence Triarchic Theory in the Classroom • Goal is to discover and explore domains of natural curiosity and talent • Exposure to stimulating materials every day • Concerns about Traditional Classroom • Analytic ability favored in conventional schools • Creative students may be reprimanded or marked down for nonconformist answers • Practical students may do better outside school

  12. The Concept of Intelligence Emotional Intelligence • Perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively • Four aspects • Perceiving and expressing emotions • Understanding emotions • Facilitating thought and affect of moods • Managing emotions

  13. The Concept of Intelligence Comparing the Intelligences Fig. 8.3

  14. The Concept of Intelligence The Influence of Heredity and Environment • Environmental Influences • Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably; very complex • Socioeconomic status • Parent communication • Schooling • Intelligence test scores increase each year around the world; effects of technology? • Flynn effect (increased education, not heredity, caused increase rapidly in IQ scores)

  15. The Concept of Intelligence The Influence of Heredity and Environment • Emphasis on prevention, not remediation • High quality intervention improves IQ and school achievement • Effects strongest for poor with low educated parents • Positive benefits continue into adolescence • Educates parents to be more sensitive • Abecedarian Intervention program

  16. Ethnic and Gender Comparisons • Stereotype threat— fear of confirming negative stereotypes raises anxiety in testing • Some studies confirm existence • Others believe stereotype threat is exaggerated to explain gap • Gender differences in intellectual abilities • Males more likely to have extremely high or low scores; controversy over gender differences

  17. The Development of Intelligence Intelligence in Adulthood • Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence • Crystallized intelligence • Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age • Fluid intelligence • Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on • Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cohort testing

  18. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Mental Retardation • Condition of limited mental ability • Low IQ on traditional test of intelligence • Difficulty adapting to everyday life • Onset of characteristics by age 18 • Range of impairments vary • Some causes include • Organic retardation • Cultural-familial retardation

  19. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Classification of Mental Retardation based on IQ Fig. 8.12

  20. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Giftedness • Above-average intelligence; IQ averaged 150 on Stanford-Binet • Precocity • March to their own drummer • Passion to master • Intelligence and creativity not same thing; most creative people are quite intelligent but reverse not necessarily true

  21. Creativity Ability to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems Convergent thinking Gives one correct answer; is characteristic of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests Divergentthinking Produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Creative Thinking

  22. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Characteristics of Creative Thinkers • Flexibility and playful thinking • Brainstorming • Inner motivation • Willingness to risk • Objective evaluation of work

  23. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Changes in Adulthood • Individuals’ most creative products were generated in their thirties • 80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50 • Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before declining • Age of decline varies by domain

  24. The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Living a More Creative Life • Try to be surprised by something every day • Try to surprise at least one person every day • Write down the surprises of each day • Follow sparked interests • Wake up in the morning with a specific goal • Take charge of your schedule • Spend time in stimulating settings

  25. 8 The End