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The Role of Nutrition in Our Health

The Role of Nutrition in Our Health. What Is Nutrition?. Nutrition: is an interdisciplinary and applied study of food, including How food nourishes our bodies How food influences our health (mind and body) Compared with other fields, nutrition is a relatively new discipline of science.

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The Role of Nutrition in Our Health

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  1. The Role of Nutrition in Our Health

  2. What Is Nutrition? • Nutrition: is an interdisciplinary and applied study of food, including • How food nourishes our bodies • How food influences our health (mind and body) • Compared with other fields, nutrition is a relatively new discipline of science.

  3. Why Is Nutrition Important? • Nutrition contributes to wellness. • Wellness: the absence of disease • Physical, emotional, and spiritual health • Critical components of wellness • Nutrition • Physical activity

  4. Why Is Nutrition Important? Nutrition encompasses the following aspects of food • Consumption • Digestion • Absorption • Metabolism • Storage • Excretion

  5. Why Is Nutrition Important? Nutrition also studies these aspects of food • Psychological • Food safety • Global food supply • Cultural

  6. Why Is Nutrition Important? Figure 1.1

  7. Why Is Nutrition Important? • Nutrition can prevent disease. • Nutrient deficiency diseases: • rickets (vitamin D) • goiter (iodine) • scurvy (vitamin C) • Diseases influenced by nutrition:heart disease; diabetes; high blood pressure; osteoarthritis, osteoporosis

  8. Why Is Nutrition Important? • Obesity is a growing problem across the globe – changes in obesity that took developing world nations, such as the US two to four decades to occur are taking place in emerging nations at 2x the pace or faster! Figure 1.2

  9. Promoting Better Nutrition for All • The World Health Organization and member states began a campaign called: Five Keys to a Healthy Diet: • Give your baby only breast milk for the first six months of life; • Eat a variety of foods; • Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables; • Eat moderate amounts of fat and oils; • Eat less salt and sugars.

  10. What Are Nutrients? • Nutrients: the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function. • carbohydrates vitamins • fats and oils minerals • proteins water

  11. What Are Nutrients? • Macronutrients: nutrients required in relatively large amounts (g or Kg). • Provide energy • Carbohydrates; fats and oils; proteins • Micronutrients: nutrients required in smaller amounts (g or mg). • Vitamins and minerals

  12. Energy from Nutrients • We measure energy in kilocalories(kcal) or kiloJoules (kJ). • On food labels in America, the term “calorie” appears. It should actually state: kilocalories.

  13. Carbohydrates • Primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain • Provide 4 kcal (or 17 kJ) per gram • Carbohydrates are found in grains (wheat, rice), vegetables, fruits, and legumes • Sugars are also carbohydrate

  14. Fats and Oils • Are composed of lipids, molecules that are insoluble in water • Provide 9 kcal (38 kJ) per gram • Are an important energy source during rest or low intensity exercise • Are found in butter and vegetable oils • Are source of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids

  15. Proteins • Are chains of amino acids • Can supply 4 kcal (17 kJ) of energy per gram, but are not a primary energy source • Are an important source of nitrogen

  16. Proteins • Proteins are important for • Building cells and tissues • Maintaining bones • Repairing damage • Regulating metabolism • Fluid balance • Protein sources include meats, fish, dairy products, seeds, nuts, and legumes.

  17. Vitamins • Vitamins:organic molecules that assist in regulating body processes. [Organic means that the molecule contains carbon atoms.] • Vitamins are micronutrients needed to support the body. They do not yeild energy, so they have no kcal or kJ in them. There are two categories: • Fat-soluble vitamins • Water-soluble vitamins

  18. Vitamins • Fat-soluble vitamins • Vitamins A, D, E, and K • Dissolve easily in fats and oils • Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body. • Toxicity can occur, especially from vitamin A.

  19. Vitamins • Water-soluble vitamins • Vitamin C and the B vitamins • Remain dissolved in water • Excess water-soluble vitamins are eliminated by the kidneys daily and cannot be stored in our bodies. This is why we must eat more of these vitamins each and every day.

  20. Minerals • Minerals: inorganic substances required for body processes. They are atoms, not molecules. • Minerals include, for example: • sodium, calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium. • Minerals have many different functions such as fluid regulation, bone structure, muscle movement, and nerve functioning.

  21. Minerals • Our bodies require at least 100 mg/day of the major minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. • We require less than 100 mg/day of the trace minerals such as iron, zinc, copper, iodine, and fluoride.

  22. Water • Water is a critical nutrient for health and survival. • Water is involved in many body processes. • fluid balance nutrient transport • nerve impulses removal of wastes • muscle contractions chemical reactions • many, many more…

  23. Determining Nutrient Needs • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): updated nutritional standards. • Expand on the traditional RDA values • Set standards for nutrients that do not have RDA values

  24. Determining Nutrient Needs DRIs identify the • Amount of a nutrient needed to prevent deficiency disease in healthy people • Amount of a nutrient which may reduce the risk of chronic disease • Upper level of safety for nutrients

  25. Determining Nutrient Needs Figure 1.8

  26. Determining Nutrient Needs • DRIs consist of four values • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) • Adequate Intake (AI) • Tolerable Upper-Intake Level (UL)

  27. Determining Nutrient Needs • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) • The average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half of the people in a particular category • Are used to determine the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of a nutrient

  28. Determining Nutrient Needs: EAR Figure 1.9

  29. Determining Nutrient Needs • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) • The average daily intake level required to meet the needs of 97 to 98% of people in a given life stage and gender

  30. Determining Nutrient Needs: RDA Figure 1.10

  31. Determining Nutrient Needs • Adequate Intake (AI) • Recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient • Based on observations and estimates from experiments • Used when the RDA is not yet established: calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, fluoride

  32. Determining Nutrient Needs • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) • Highest average daily intake level that is not likely to have adverse effects on the health of most people • Consumption of a nutrient at levels above the UL is not considered safe

  33. Determining Nutrient Needs • Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) • Average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance • Based on age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity

  34. Determining Nutrient Needs • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) • The portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient • The range of energy intake from carbohydrate, fat, and protein associated with reduced risk of chronic disease • The range of macronutrient intake that provides adequate levels of essential nutrients

  35. Determining Nutrient Needs: AMDR Table 1.4

  36. Nutrition Research • The scientific method • Observation: describe the phenomenon • Create a hypothesis • Design, collect, and analyze the data • Interpret the data • Generalize the findings, develop a theory

  37. Research Models • Epidemiological studies • Human experiments • Case control studies • Clinical studies • Animal studies • Note: Each type of study has advantages and disadvantages.

  38. Research Study Factors • Controls • Does not receive treatment • Sample size • Appropriate to measure a difference between treatment groups • Placebo • Similar appearance and taste • Double-blind • Neither subjects nor researchers know who is in the placebo or treatment groups

  39. Evaluating Media Reports • Ask these questions to determine the scientific validity • Who is reporting the information? • Who conducted the research and who paid for it? • Is the report based on reputable research studies? • Was there a control and an experimental group? • Was the sample size large enough to rule out chance variation? • Was a placebo effectively administered? • Was the experiment double blind?

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