Schedule • 1 warm-up • Song review • Rise of democracy • Ga. Constitution • Article of constitution
Warm-up • Who was the writer of the declaration of independence?
In 1776 • The Declaration of Independence created a new nation made of 13 Independent States
Constitution • Most states wrote a constitution • A constitution is a document that sets out the laws and principles of government
Why a Constitution • 1st: • Spell out the rights of all citizens • 2nd • Limit the power of government
Division of Power • Power was divided between the legislative and executive • Most states have an upper house called a Senate and a lower house • Most states had a governor
1776: National Government Begins to take Shape • The Founding Fathers believed independent states needed to be united with a central government
State Loyalty • At this time in history few people felt loyal to the national cause. • Instead, people felt loyalty to their state
Hook: Georgia Constitution of 1777 BIcycle • Look at the two bold/highlighted words. Looking at the prefixes, how many houses are in each? • Unicameral House of Legislatures • Bicameral House of Legislature UNIcorn UNIcycle BIped
GA Constitution of 1777 • Was adopted shortly after the D of I was adopted • Created by the provincial congress • Adopted in Savannah, GA • Defined separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Established the following • Legislative Branch • Unicameral • Elected the governor • Had most of the power to govern • Executive Branch • Governor served a 1 year term • Elected by a 12 member panel of legislators • Had no real power • Judicial Branch • Superior court in every county
Strengths of GA Constitution 1777 • Created a government with separation of powers between branches • Created a Republican form of government • Protected basic rights like freedom of religion, press, and trial by jury • Gave GA a government to run the state • Created 3 branches of government
Weaknesses of the GA Constitution 1777 • One chamber legislature was too powerful • Legislature had all of the power as they chose the governor and judges • Very weak governor with no power to lead
Crash course question • What as the first government set-up by congress? • list one thing the Article of confederation could do? • what was the biggest problem with the articles? • what did all the writers of the constitution want have in common? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bO7FQsCcbD8&feature=share&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s
WHAT IS IT? • The “Articles of Confedertion and Perpetual Union” is the name of the first constitution of the U.S. The agreement was the “law of the land” from 1781 until 1789.
WHEN DID THIS HAPPEN? • It was drafted by the same Continental Congress that passed the Declaration of Independence. • This document gave the original 13 colonies a set of rules. • A WAY TO GOVERN THEMSELVES!
It was created during the Revolutionary War and reflects the founding fathers desire to avoid an overbearing central authority (like the king of England!)
What did it establish? • The “Articles of Confederation” established a “firm league of friendship” among the 13 states, when finally adopted on March 1, 1781.
Created a unicameral legislatureNo executive branchno court systemweak national governmentmost power was in the states
WHAT WAS IT GOOD FOR? • It created a system of government • National government could: • Declare war and make peace • Maintain an army and navy • Make treaties with other countries • Borrow money • Establish a postal service
This all sounds quite nice and powerful on paper. • There was just one problem. • IT DID NOT WORK!
MAJOR PROBLEMS OF THE DOCUMENT WERE: • The states were powerful, while Congress was weak. • There was no chief executive (president) or national judicial system (supreme court). • Couldn’t levy taxes • Could not print money…states could • Could not regulate trade between other countries and the states
Example of the problem: • FACT: George Washington had to go to Congress to beg for money to buy bullets, food, and clothes for our soldiers.
George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and other leaders were not satisfied with the Articles of Confederation. But any changes required the approval of all 13 states.
PROBLEMS, PROBLEMS, PROBLEMS • In 1776 at Annapolis, Maryland a convention meet to discuss commercial problems in the colonies, but only 5 of the 13 sent representatives. • How disappointing! • Something had to be done to help our struggling nation.
On Jan. 25, 1787 Danial Shay, a Mass. farmer and Revolutionary War veteran, lead a group of farmers on an attack of the federal arsenal in Springfield, Mass. This unsuccessful attempt resulted in 4 men dying, but attention had been drawn to the economic plight of the people.
HAD THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DONE ANY GOOD FOR OUR COUNTRY? • YES! It had provided our young nation with experience in self-government under a written document. It’s weaknesses only served to make our nation stronger.
A HAPPY ENDING FOR ALL! • Representatives from the thirteen colonies meet in Philadelphia in 1787 to address the nation’s problems. The Articles of Confederation were abandoned and the United States Constitution was written.
Now let’s look at the Articles of Confederation and how it was designed1. Take the handout and fold it on the dotted lines so that it is like a fan. Fold the “summary” panel to the back and the “weaknesses” panel to the front2. glue the “weakness” panel onto the far right side of your notebook page 3. As you take notes on each article, you’ll write the summary on the notebook page next to the article. Have your handout folded into a single panel as you write…it gives you plenty of room.
You will work in groups to go through the 13 Articles. When we all finish, we’ll look at strengths and weaknesses.
Summary • As a group, you will create a poster to show what you know about the GA Constitution of 1777 and the Articles of Confederation • This is for a grade, so everyone in the group MUST contribute. • Plan first, then design the poster. • Be neat, creative, and accurate.
The Constitutional Convention • The Founding Fathers were upset about the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation • WHY? • What should they do?
The Constitutional Convention • They met in Annapolis, MD to discuss trade and other problems of the Confederation
What happened? • The delegates agreed to meet again in Philadelphia, PA in 1787
Philadelphia 1787 • 55 delegates representing every state except Rhode Island met to change the Articles of Confederation
Closed Door Meetings • The delegates met in secret to talk about how to improve things • Why in secret?
What were the delegates like? • Most delegates were… • Wealthy • Admired by their states
Occupations… • Merchants • Lawyers • Planters • Generals • Doctors
Famous Delegates… • George Washington • Ben Franklin • James Madison • John Adams
The Georgia Delegates… • William Few • Abraham Baldwin • William Pierce • William Houston
The Leaders Emerged… • George Washington was chairman of the convention
The Leaders Emerged… • James Madison “Father of the the Constitution” drafted much of the final document
The Leaders Emerged… • Ben Franklin was the oldest and most famous delegate