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# Semester 2 Exam Review

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1. Semester 2 Exam Review Chapters 9, 10, 11, 14, 12, 15, 21, & 22

2. Chapter 9 Forces and Motion

3. #1: Define describe how to calculate speed, velocity, and acceleration • Speed: Distance traveled divided by the time taken to travel that distance • Velocity: Tells how fast an object is moving and its direction • Acceleration: Change in speed or direction (or both)

4. SPEED Distance traveled divided by the time taken to travel that distance Distance Time Motion and Speed

5. MOTION The change of position of an object relative to a reference point A reference point is an object that appears to stay in place Can be described by position, speed, and direction What is motion?

6. #2: Newton’s Laws of Motion • Newton’s 1st Law • Newton’s 2nd Law • Newton’s 3rd Law

7. Newton’s 1st Law of Motion An object at rest remains at rest An object in motion remains in motion Unless an unbalanced force acts on it Newton’s First Law of Motion

8. Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied F = m x a Newton’s Second Law of Motion

9. Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion All forces come in pairs For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction AKA the Law of Action and Reaction Newton’s Third Law of Motion

10. Gravity Mass Weight A force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses Amount of matter in an object Does not change Unit = kilogram (kg) Measure of the gravitational force on an object Changes when gravitational force changes Unit = newton (N) #3: Gravity, Mass, & Weight

11. AIR RESISTANCE The force that opposes the motion of falling objects Depends on size, shape, and speed of the object Air Resistance

12. #4: Law of Conservation of Momentum • Law of Conservation of Momentum: • Any time objects collide, the total amount of momentum is conserved, or stays the same • Momentum can be transferred from one object to another during a collision

13. NET FORCE Combination of ALL forces acting on an object ADD all forces in the same direction SUBTRACT forces in opposite directions #5: Net Force

14. Net Force

15. Balanced Force Unbalanced Force The net force on an object is 0 Newtons Object’s motion will not change The net force on an object is not equal to 0 Newtons Can change the motion of an object #6: Balanced vs. Unbalanced Forces

16. BALANCED UNBALANCED

17. Chapter 10 The Energy of Waves

18. #7: Properties of Waves • Wave: any disturbance that carries energy through matter or empty space • Electromagnetic waves: waves that do not require a medium (ex. UV rays, x rays, microwaves)

19. Properties of Waves Amplitude Wavelength Frequency Height of the wave from rest position Distance from one wave to the next Number of waves produced in a given amount of time

20. #8: Wavelength v = λ x f v = Wave Speed λ = Wavelength f = frequency

21. #9: Frequency and Wavelength

22. #10: Reflection and Refraction

23. REFLECTION What happens when a wave bounces back after hitting a barrier Reflection

24. REFRACTION The bending of a wave as it passes from one medium to another at an angle Refraction

25. Longitudinal Wave Particles vibrate in back and forth motion #11: Longitudinal vs. Transverse Waves

26. Transverse Wave Particles vibrate in up and down motion #11: Longitudinal vs. Transverse Waves

27. #12: Vibration • Vibrations can cause wave disturbances • Vibration: a repetitive back and forth motion

28. Chapter 11 Heat and Temperature

29. Temperature Thermal Energy Thermal Expansion Measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object The total kinetic energy of the particles that make up a substance An increase in volume of a substance due to an increase in temperature #13: Temperature, Thermal Expansion, & Thermal Energy

30. What happens when objects at different temperatures come into contact? Energy is transferred Thermal energy transferred from the warmer object to the cooler object until both have the same temperature Heat Transfer Between Objects

31. Are thermal energy transfers efficient? They are not 100% efficient Some energy is lost as heat to the surroundings Efficiency of Heat Transfers

32. Conduction Convection Radiation The transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact The transfer of thermal energy by the movement or circulation of a liquid or a gas The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves #14: Conduction, Convection, & Radiation

33. #15: Energy Transfers • Chemical to Thermal energy: burning natural gas to heat water • Thermal to Mechanical energy: steam locomotive train • Mechanical to Thermal energy: Rubbing hands together • Mechanical to Electromagnetic energy: A generator

34. Chapter 14 Earth’s Systems and Cycles

35. Earth’s Spheres • Geosphere – all the features on Earth’s surface and below the surface • Atmosphere – mixtures of gases that surround and protect Earth • Biosphere – all life on Earth • Hydrosphere – all water on Earth

36. #16: Describe the processes that change the landscape of Earth. • Plate tectonics: mountain building, earthquakes, volcanoes • Earthquakes: deformation of rocks, destruction of natural habitats • Volcanoes: destruction of natural habitats • Erosions: creates canyons and valleys

37. #17: Describe each layer of the Earth’s atmosphere • Troposphere: atmospheric layer in which we live • Stratosphere: temperatures rise with altitude; contains ozone layer that absorbs harmful UV rays • Mesosphere: coldest layer • Thermosphere: warmest layer

38. #18: Explain how the Earth’s atmospheric layers are classified • Layers are classified by temperature and altitude

39. #19: Water cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Carbon Cycle • Water Cycle: Continuous movement of water between the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans; Steps include evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, runoff, and percolation • Nitrogen Cycle: the process in which nitrogen circulates among the air, soil, water, plants, and animals in an ecosystem • Carbon Cycle: the movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back

40. The Water Cycle

41. The Nitrogen Cycle

42. The Carbon Cycle

43. #20: The Rock Cycle

44. #21: Explain what happens when plate boundaries/tectonic plates move • Most earthquakes happen at plate boundaries

45. Chapter 15 Environmental Problems and Solutions

46. #23: Environmental Problems • Pollution • Garbage • Chemicals • Radioactive wastes • Gases • Noise • Resource Depletion • Overpopulation • Habitat Destruction

47. #24: Habitat Destruction • When habitats are destroyed, biodiversity is lost.

48. #25: Define Conservation • The preservation and wise use of natural resources • Practice the 3 R’s • Reduce • Reuse • Recycle

49. #26: Benefits of Conservation • Reduces waste and pollution • Fewer natural resources are used and depleted