Personnel Monitoring - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

personnel monitoring n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Personnel Monitoring PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Personnel Monitoring

play fullscreen
1 / 111
Personnel Monitoring
261 Views
Download Presentation
altessa
Download Presentation

Personnel Monitoring

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. PersonnelMonitoring HTP001.012

  2. Course Overview • Introduction • Terms & Definitions • Regulations, Exposure Limits & Guidelines • External Exposure Monitoring • Internal Exposure Monitoring • Dose Terms & Dose Calculations • Dose Tracking & Reporting

  3. Enabling Objectives: 1 • Identify Dose Terms • State Regulations & Limits • Familiar with Radiation Monitoring Devices • Describe Operation of Various Dosimeters • Explain Dosimetry Administrative Controls • Use of Multiple & Extremity Dosimeters • Dosimetry for Various Situations

  4. Enabling Objectives: 2 • Describe Actions for Abnormal Situations • Explain Concepts of Internal Dosimetry • Primary Radionuclides of Concern • Describe Biological Effects & Risks • Explain Dose Calculation Methods • Assessment of Radioactivity Uptake • Dose Tracking and Reporting

  5. Units of Radiation Dose:Absorbed Dose • Gray – The SI Unit of Absorbed Dose1 Gray = 1 Joule/Kilogram (1 gray = 100 rads) • Rad – The Special Unit of Absorbed Dose1 rad = 100 ergs/gram or 0.01 Joule/kg (1 rad = 0.01 gray)

  6. Units of Radiation Dose:Dose Equivalent • Rem – The Special Unit of Any Quantities expressed as Dose Equivalent (DE)DE = Absorbed Dose times Quality Factor(1 rem = 0.01 sievert) • Sievert (Sv) – The SI Unit of Quantities expressed as Dose Equivalent (DE)(1 Sv = 100 rems)

  7. Quality Factors Type of RadiationQuality FactorX-Rays, γ, or β 1Alpha, FissionFragments, etc. 20Neutrons (Unknown Energy) 10High-Energy Protons 10

  8. Personnel Monitoring:Required by 10CFR20.1501

  9. Purposesfor Monitoring • Regulations Comply with • Evaluate: - Magnitude & Extent of Radiation Levels - Quantities of Radioactive Materials - Potential Radiological Hazards

  10. Conditions Requiring External Monitoring • Dose > 10% of 10CFR20.1201 Limits • DDE > 0.1 rem (1 mSv) for Minors • LDE > 0.15 rem (1.5 mSv) for Minors • SDE/Extremity Dose > 0.5 rem for Minors • DDE > 0.1 rem (1 mSv) During Pregnancy • Entering High or Very High Radiation Area

  11. Conditions Requiring Monitoring for Internal Exposures • Greater than 10% of Applicable ALI • CEDE > 0.1 rem (1 mSv) for Minors • CEDE > 0.1 rem (1 mSv) During Pregnancy

  12. Exposure Limits & Guidelines • TEDE </= 5 rems (0.05 Sv), or DDE + CDE </= 50 rem (0.5 Sv) • LDE </= 15 rem (0.15 Sv) • SDE/Extremity </= 50 rem (0.5 Sv) • DE </= 0.5 rem (5 mSv) to Embryo/Fetus • TVA Administrative Limit: TEDE </= 1 rem (0.01 Sv)

  13. Planned Special Exposures (PSE) Conditions: - Authorized in Writing Before Exposure Occurs - Individuals Informed of Purpose - Individuals Informed of Doses- Individuals Instructed in Measures to Keep Doses ALARA

  14. Emergency Dose Limits Voluntary Only Individuals Informed of Risk - 10 Rem TEDE to Prevent: Serious Damage to the Plant Serious Hazard to Personnel - 25 Rem TEDE to Save a Life

  15. Exposure to Pregnant Women • DDE </= 0.5 rem (5 mSv) to Embryo/Fetus • Copy of Regulatory Guide 8.13 • No Airborne or Contaminated Areas • Initial Whole Body Count Performed

  16. Modes of Exposure • External Exposure • Internal Exposure • Combination of the Two

  17. External Exposure Monitoring • Whole Body TLDs • Multiple Partial Body TLDs • Extremity TLDs • Whole Body DRDs • Dose Rate Measurements

  18. Thermoluminescence • Thermo – Hot • Luminescent - Light

  19. Electron Trapping

  20. TLDs • Li2B4O7:Cu and • CuSO4:Tm

  21. Li2B4O7:Cu TLD • Wide Range (10 mR to 100,000R) • Long Data Retention (Low Fading) • Linear Response • Sensitive to β, γ, X-Rays, and Neutrons • Reusable and Economical • Not Susceptible to Radiofrequency Interference

  22. Lithium Borate Response Curves Radiation Response per Roentgen 2 Element 1 1 0 2 Element 2 1 0 0.01 0.1 1 10 Photon Energy (MeV) Phoon

  23. CuSO4:Tm TLDs • Range: 1 mR to 1,000 R • Linear up to about 200 R • Sensitive to β, γ, and X-Rays • Over responds to Low Energy X-Rays • Useful for Environmental Measurements

  24. Calcium SulfateResponse Curves Radiation Response per Roentgen 10 Element 3 5 0 2 Element 4 1 0 0.01 0.1 1 10 Photon Energy (MeV) Phoon

  25. Limitations of Both Types • Sensitive to Heat, Moisture, and Shock • Can be Shielded by the Body • Subject to Improper Wear by Workers • Misuse Results in Incorrect Data • Errors from Logistical/Recordkeeping

  26. Panasonic TLDs

  27. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter

  28. TLD Badge Assembly

  29. TLD Badge

  30. Panasonic 802 TLD Element #TLD MaterialFiltration 1 Li2B4O7:Cu 14 mg/cm2 2 Li2B4O7:Cu 160 mg/cm2 3 CuSO4:Tm 160 mg/cm2 4 CuSO4:Tm 0.7 mg Lead

  31. Measuring Neutrons with TLDs • Use 6Li and 10B Rather Than 7Li and 11B • Fast Neutrons not Directly Measured • Neutrons Moderated by the Body • Slower Recoil Neutrons Measured • “Albedo Effect”

  32. Panasonic 802 TLD Element #TLD MaterialFiltration 1 Li2B4O7:Cu 14 mg/cm2 2 Li2B4O7:Cu 160 mg/cm2 3 CuSO4:Tm 160 mg/cm2 4 CuSO4:Tm 0.7 mg Lead

  33. Reading Panasonic TLDs

  34. System Calibration • Routine Calibration • Daily QC Check • Calibration TLDs • On-Line QC TLDs Daily

  35. System QC/QA • TEDS Accredited by NIST and NVLAP • Intercomparison Tests • Review & Verification Checks • Statistical Review Technology • Assessed by External Organizations • Quality Manager Assessment • Routine Internal Evaluations

  36. Badge Issue & Collection • Issued & Collected by RADCON • Computer Assigns a TLD Number • Issued for a 3-Month Period • Processed by TEDS • Background TLDs Maintained

  37. Special Pulls • Administrative Dose Limits Exceeded • DRD Off Scale or Displays Error • Termination/Relocation of Employee • Quality Control Check • Multiple Badge or Neutron Processing

  38. Wearing the TLD • Front of Body, Neck to Waist • Conditions May Require Change • Wear Inside Coveralls in Contaminated Area • Do Not Open or Pamper With the Badge

  39. Proper Wearing of Dosimetry

  40. Multiple Badging • Nonuniform Radiation Field • Whole Body Dose >/= 100 mrem/h & Variable • Highest Dose Location Unknown • Radiation Levels Unknown and Gradient Nonuniform

  41. Multi-Badge Placement • Forehead • Chest • Back • Gonads • Right Arm • Left Arm • Right Femur • Left Femur • Control (Not Worn)

  42. Extremity Badges • >/= 500 mrem to Extremity • Handling Unshielded Beta Sources • Whole Body (Except Hands) Shielded • Handling Small Non-Shielded γ Sources • Decontamination of Beta • Glove Box Operations • Handling I-125

  43. Extremity Dosimeter

  44. Wearing Extremity Badge

  45. Secondary Dosimetry • In Any RCA • Includes: - EDs -DADs • Read Periodically During Job Assignment • Wear on Front of Person • Wear Inside in Contamination Area

  46. Electronic Dosimeter

  47. Electronic Dosimeter Display

  48. Pocket Chamber

  49. Dosimetry Requirements for Work Areas: 1 • Restricted Area – TLD • Radiation Area – TLD • RCA – TLD & DAD/ED • Nonuniform Radiation Fields – Multiple TLDs • High Doses to Extremities – Extremity TLDs