Why did Europeans colonize Africa? The Colonization of AfricaMotives and Impact
Pressures for Expansion Imperialism – one country’s domination of the political, economic and social life of another country. • Three key factors: • Nationalism prompted rival European nations to build empires in their competitive quest for power. • Industrial Revolution created a tremendous demand for raw materials and expanded markets. • Religious fervor and feelings of racial and cultural superiority inspired Europeans to impose their cultures on distant lands.
Political Rivalries • Actors on the world stage • Continuing enterprise that seemed to have no limits • Communication • Slow – governors and generals take matters into their own hands • Armies to expand borders • Conflict over territories arose – remote battlefields
Desire for New Markets • Raw materials and manufactured goods • Search for new sources of raw materials and new markets • Rubber, copper and gold – Africa • Jute – India • Tin – Southeast Asia • European and American industries and financial markets • Colonies – also provided markets
Seeking New Opportunities • Needed loyal people to rule countries • Leaders urged citizens to move to colonies • Cecil Rhodes • British adventurer who made a fortune from gold and diamond mining in south Africa • Went on to find Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe
“Civilizing” Mission • Religious and humanitarian impulses • Spread western technology, religion, customs and traditions • Catholic and Protestant missionaries • Built churches and taught Christian doctrine • Superiority • Impose western civilization • Learn European languages and encouraged western lifestyles • Social Darwinism
The “White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling
Forms of Imperialism • Treaties, bought land, or conquered • Territorial control • Colony – a territory that was ruled directly • Direct or indirect rule • Protectorate – had its own government, but officials of a foreign power guided its policies, particularly in foreign affairs • Sphere of influence – held exclusive investment or trading rights
Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 Another point of view?
North Africa • Most live on a strip of land north of the Sahara • 1800s Muslim Arabs under Ottoman ruler governed large territories west of Egypt • Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco • Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria
The French in North Africa • 1830 – King Charles X of France ordered an invasion of Algiers • Resistance from Abd al-Qadir • 10 years to subdue • Next Tunis in 1881 • Morocco in 1905 • I million French settled
Britain and Egypt • Egypt ruled under Muhammad Ali • Carried out building projects with European assistance • Debt rose and European political and economic influence rose • 1859-1869 – Suez Canal • Sold holdings to Great Britain • 1882 – British force moved in – defeated Ahmed Arabi • Egypt became a protectorate • 1898 – the Sudan – dispute between Britain and France
Italy Seizes Libya • Entered race late – wanted a African empire • Declared war on Ottoman Empire in 1911 • Easily defeated the Ottoman Turks • Took Tripoli as a colony, renamed it Libya
Central and East Africa • Henry M. Stanley • King Leopold II – Congo region • 1908 – gave Congo to Belgian government for large loan • Only country to remain independent in this region was Ethiopia • Menelik II • 1896 – when Italians attacked crushing victory deterred others
5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
West Africa • Trading posts • Salt, gold, iron wares and slaves • Econ0mies declined when slave trade abolished • Reliance on cash crops – cotton and cacao beans • Palm, ivory, and rubber • European nations push inward • 1890s SamoryToure, ruler of a kingdom in present-day Senegal led armies against the French, other joined • By 1900s, reluctantly accept European rule • Liberia – only remaining independent state (1822) – support from US
West and Central Africa • 1800s – slave trade illegal • Sought out West Africa’s gold, timber, hides, and palm oil • Britain, France, and Germany took over the areas along the Atlantic coast • 1847 – African Americans freed created the republic of Liberia • By 1900, only Libya remained free • 1911 – Italy defeated the Ottoman Empire and given control of Tripoli
Southern Africa • The Afrikaners – Dutch settlers who conquered lands around Cape Town • Cape Colony • British seized during Napoleonic Wars • Afrikaners resented British rule • Boers • Great Trek • Zulu Nation – Shaka Zulu • Union of South Africa
Effects of Imperialism • Mines, plantations, building factories and ports • Hired Africans with low wages and imposed taxes • Men housed in dormitories away from families, treated brutally • Schools • Taught European ways were best • Missions – reject African customs and beliefs • Learned to read European books and wear European clothes • Some • Entire villages broke up, families came apart, ancient traditions disappeared.
What is imperialism? • Domination by one country or people over another group of people • Changed the world during the later half of the century
Old Looking for a direct trade route to Asia Established colonies in the Americas, India, South Africa, the East Indies, and territory along Africa and China Mercantilism Cost of colonies outweighed the benefits Colonialism became less popular New Driven by Industrial Revolution Economic, military, political, humanitarian, religious, social Darwinism, and western technology How is Old Imperialism and New Imperialism different?
What was the Boer War? • Race for the continent led to a war in South Africa • Fought between the British and the Boers • Beginning • 1600s – Dutch settle Cape Town (Boers) • 1800s – British seized the Dutch territory – renamed Cape Colony • Boers moved inland
What were the economic reasons? • Wanted to expand global markets • Need for cheap labor and a steady supply of raw materials • Directly controlled these areas • Problem • New colonies were too poor to buy European goods
What were the military and political reasons? • Colonies crucial to military power, national security, and nationalism • Needed naval ports to take on coal and supplies • Britain needed to protect the Suez Canal • Possession of colonies was an indication of a nation’s greatness
What were the humanitarian and religious goals? • Should civilize • “The White Man’s Burden” – Kipling • Civilize the uncivilized • Spread Christianity
Why was Social Darwinism a reason? • Charles Darwin’s – survival of the fittest • Applied to human societies and nations • White race was dominant and only natural to conquer the inferior