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International Advertising. International Advertising (Contd.). The basic framework and concepts of international advertising include the following seven steps:. Perform marketing research Specify the goals of the communication
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International Advertising (Contd.) The basic framework and concepts of international advertising include the following seven steps: • Perform marketing research • Specify the goals of the communication • Develop the most effective message(s) for the market segments selected • Select effective media • Compose and secure a budget • Execute the campaign, and • Evaluate the campaign relative to the goals specified
Global Advertising and the Communications Process The international communications process consists of the following seven steps: • An information source. An international marketing executive with a product message to communicate. • Encoding. The message from the source converted into effective symbolism for transmission to a receiver. • A message channel. The sales force and/or advertising media that convey the encoded message to the intended receiver. • Decoding. The interpretation by the receiver of the symbolism transmitted from the information source. • Receiver. Consumer action by those who receive the message and are the target for the thought transmitted. • Feedback. Information about the effectiveness of the message that flows from the receiver (the intended target) back to the information source for evaluation of the effectiveness of the process. • Noise. Uncontrollable and unpredictable influences such as competitive activities and confusion that detract from the process and affect any or all of the other six steps.
Legal Constraints • Advertising campaigns must comply with legal regulations around the world. • Comparative advertising is heavily regulated in other parts of the world. • A variety of restrictions on advertising of pharmaceuticals is restricted in many countries. • Advertising on television is strictly controlled in many countries, e.g., in Germany, for example, commercials must be spaced at least 20 minutes apart and total ad time may not exceed 12 minutes per hour. Commercial stations in the United Kingdom are limited to 7 minutes per hour.
Constraints to Advertising Campaigns • There are many problems in communicating a firm’s product offerings to its various target markets around the world. Some of these include: • Cultural Diversity: Ad campaigns and product brand names being communicated may mean different things to different cultures. • Media Limitations: in some underdeveloped countries, there is a shortage of advertising media such as radio stations, print media (newspapers, magazines), and television stations, cable TV, and satellite TV. • Production and Cost Limitations: In some markets costs are prohibitive to advertise on conventional advertising media; other countries may have low quality paper to print advertising.
Constraints to Advertising Campaigns • Coverage: In large, less developed countries advertising media such as television may not be geographically dispersed. • Lack of Market Data: This makes it difficult to reach specific target markets . • Direct Mail: Even if direct mail is available, it may not work due to high illiteracy rates in some countries. 7. The Internet: Though advertising via the internet is fast increasing, the WWW is not widely available in many countries where computers are considered expensive.
Defining Advertising • Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. • Advertising can be done through radio, television, hoardings, newspapers, etc.
Cultural change • Cultural sensitivity means being attuned to the nuances of culture so that a new culture can be viewed objectively, evaluated and appreciated. • Cultural similarities may just be an illusion. • The marketer may opt for planned or unplanned change. • The marketer may also opt for cultural congruence,means marketing products similar to ones already on the market.
Cultural adaptation • An international marketer must adapt the culture of the host country. • However,the degree of adaptation may vary. • Cultural imperatives are those business customs and expectations that must be met and conformed to or avoided if relationships areto be successful.
Cultural Electives are those norms that cultural aliens may wish to confirm to but it is not compulsory. • Cultural Exclusives are those customs or behavior patterns reserved exclusively for the locals and from which the foreigner is barred. • Foreign managers need to be perceptive enough to know when they are dealing with an imperative, an elective or an exclusive and have the adaptability to respond to each.
Challenges faced by International Advertisers • Cultural adaptations- language barriers, attitudes, nationalism • Political obligations- political instability • International Laws • Technological problems (specially in developing countries)