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Chapter 25

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Chapter 25

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  1. Chapter 25 The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution

  2. Timeline

  3. Map 25.1: Europe in 1914

  4. The Road to World War I • Nationalism and Internal Dissent • Nationalism • Liberals claimed that creation of national states would bring peace • Led to competition instead of cooperation • Brinkmanship • Internal dissent • Ethnic tensions • Growing power of Socialist labor movements • Militarism • Conscription • Influence of military leaders • The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914 • The effects of the Balkan Wars prior to 1914 • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife Sophia, June 28, 1914 • Germany gives “full support” to Austria • Russian mobilization • Schlieffen Plan 

  5. THE ROAD TO WAR IMMEDIATE CAUSES

  6. OBJECTIVES • Identify the rapid train of events or the immediate causes of the Great War • Discuss the decisions made or not made by European leaders • Discuss how leadership determines the fate of nations

  7. Alexandra-German Princess, wife of Nicholas II, grandaughter of Q.V. Grandsons Tsar Nicholas II-Russia r.1894-1917 King George V-GB r. 1910-1936 Grandson Wilhelm II-Germany r. 1888-1918 Others… Albert I-Belgium Franz Joseph 2nd Cousin Great Uncle A Family Feud? Queen Victoria (r. 1837-1901) “GRANNY” 9 Children

  8. The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel III [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]

  9. LEADERSHIP • KING ALBERT / BELGIUM • KING PETER I / ALEXANDER I / SERBIA YUGOSLAVIA • KING CAROL I / FERDINAND I / ROMANIA • KING CONSTANTINE / GREECE • TSAR FERDINAND I / BULGARIA • EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEPH I / KARL I / AUSTRIA-HUNGARY • CZAR NICHOLAS II/ GRAND DUKE MIKHAIL / RUSSIA • KING GEORGE V / UNITED KINGDOM • KING VITTORIO EMANUELE III / ITALY • KAISER WILHELM II/ GERMANY • SULTAN MEHMED V / MEHMED VI / OTTOMAN EMPIRE

  10. FREDERICK III • r. 1888 - 99 days • Son of Wilhelm I (r. 1861-1888) • Year of the Three Emperors • Wilhelm I (r. 1861-1888) • Frederick III – 99 days • Wilhelm II – (r. 1888-1918) • Liberal ideology • Historical irony

  11. CRISIS SITUATIONS • Fashoda Crisis (1898) • Russo-Japanese War (1905) • First Moroccan Crisis (1905) • Bosnian Crisis (1908) • Second Moroccan Crisis (1911) • First Balkan War (1912) • Second Balkan War (1913) “SOME DAMN THING IN THE BALKANS”

  12. Tensions & Conflicts: 1873-1914 First Moroccan Crisis (1905) Germany is going to test the waters between Britain and France. (Would Bismarck have let it get to this point? Would he be this reckless?) Germany promotes Moroccan Independence…obviously goading the French, who control Morocco! Yet, when the issue was brought before international purview in 1906, Germany was summarily defeated, and both the United States and Britain sided with France. Ironically, because Germany had tried to push France around, it only brought France and Britain together!

  13. Europe in 1914

  14. The Balkans in 1914

  15. BALKAN WARS • First Balkan War – Oct. 1912 – May 1913 • Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, and Bulgaria) vs. Ottoman Empire • Second Balkan War – June 1913 – Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece

  16. M. I. M.A.I.N.Causes of the War

  17. Militarism …a.k.a: “Arms Race” Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. ain causes

  18. MILITARISM • “mechanism of great standing armies and large navies, with the attendant evils of espionage, suspicion, fear, and hatred” • existence of a powerful class of military officers who tend to dominate over the civilian authorities -Sydney B. Fay

  19. MILITARISM • The build up of armies, navies, fortification of national boundaries, armament race, reserves • NEW WEAPONS • Tanks, submarines, machine guns, planes, gas • Intelligence, Communication, Transportation • War Plans, War Colleges • Industrial Revolution Technology

  20. Militarism …a.k.a: “Arms Race” Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. ain causes

  21. ARMS RACE • 1910-1914 increased military expenditures • France – 10% • British – 13% • Russia – 39% • Germany – 73%

  22. CONSCRIPTION • All Continental European countries since 1870 • France – Revolutionary Wars • Austria-Hungary – 1868 • Germany – 1870 • Italy – 1873 • Russia – 1874 • WWI – “million man” military • Germany – 2 million

  23. FlameThrowers GrenadeLaunchers

  24. Poison Gas Machine Gun

  25. MILITARISM • Bolt action rifle • Machine Guns • Maxim Machine Gun - 400-600 rounds per minute • Artillery • Big Bertha • Krupp Armaments • 2,200 pound shell 9 miles

  26. MILITARISM • Planes • First used for Reconnaissance • Wright Brothers (1903) • “Red Baron” • Manfred von Richtohfen (1892-1918) • 80 confirmed victories

  27. The Zeppelin

  28. MILITARISM

  29. The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

  30. The Flying Aces of World War I FrancescoBarraco, It. Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br. Eddie Rickenbacher, US Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”] Rene PaukFonck, Fr. Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.

  31. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

  32. Looking for the “Red Baron?”

  33. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

  34. MILITARISM “No Man’s Land”

  35. MILITARISM • Trench warfare • “Stalemate” • Harsh conditions • Disease • Rodents • Lice • Trench foot

  36. MILITARISM • TANKS • Evolutionary Process • Industrial Revolution – Caterpillar Tracks – Steam Tractor

  37. French Renault Tank

  38. British Tank at Ypres

  39. Tank Production 1916-18 Year UK France Germany Italy USA 1916 150 - - - - 1917 1,277 800 - - - 1918 1,391 4,000 20 6 84

  40. New French Recruits

  41. NAVAL RACE • Britain and Germany chief rivals • 1900 German Navy Law – double the size • 1909-1911 – Tirpitz Plan • British produced the first Dreadnought • Germany built 9 Dreadnoughts • British 18 Dreadnoughts • WAR = GERMAN WORLD POWER

  42. U-Boats

  43. What is the ultimate goal of an alliance system? Alliance System “The secret of politics? Make a good treaty with Russia.” m in causes

  44. ALLIANCES • “the greatest single underlying cause of the War was a system of secret alliances which developed after the Franco-Prussian War” – Sydney B. Fay

  45. What is Bismarck’s goal here?