Manufacturing The Process That Made America Great
The term manufacturing comes from the Latin term: manu factus which means "made by hand" That's not quite what we think of today.
The Rise of Manufacturing • Centuries ago, all products were made by hand. In fact, families themselves used to make most of the products they needed. • They grew their own food, built their own homes, made their own clothes, tools and other necessities in order to survive. • This left very little “free time” because they had to work from sun-up to sun down just to survive. Life was hard.
Stop for Questions 1. What does manufacturing mean? • Changing materials into usable products in a workshop or factory • Made by hand • Both A and B • None of the above
Stop for Questions 2. Which statement is true? • Before the 1800’s products were made using robotics. • Before the 1800’s the majority of products were manufactured in factories. • Before the 1800’s virtually allproducts were made by hand • None of these are true.
The Rise of Manufacturing • As time passed, some people became very skilled at making certain things. These people used their specialized skills to make products for other people. • A person who mastered making things out of metal might make these products for the entire community and trade them for other products made by other people. • This was called the “Barter System”
Stop for Questions 3. The barter system was… • The importing of goods from other countries • The exchange excess goods from a family for goods from another • The sale of goods to a store • None of the above
Stop for Questions 4. The mercantile system was… • The importing of goods from other countries • The exchange excess goods from a family for goods from another • The sale of goods to a merchant who sold them through a store. • None of the above
Stop for Questions 5. The first form of manufacturing was used in… • Tool making • Shoe making • The production line • The ford automobile
The Rise of Manufacturing • Making products by hand was inefficient. A lot of time and money were required to make each item and no two items were identical. • This method was used well into the 1700’s. • The world population like the colonies was growing fast. More and more people with more and more needs and wants called for new ideas.
People continued to develop more efficient methods of making products. In the late 1700’s some significant changes took place in a time period called….. The Industrial Revolution
Stop for Questions 6. The Englishman credited for starting the Industrial Revolution in 1769 with his invention of the steam engine was….. • Henry Ford. • Albert Einstein. • George Washington. • James Watt.
Stop for Questions 7. What was the advantage of using the steam engine in manufacturing? • The power supplied by the steam engine was available 24 hours a day. • The steam engine replaced horses as the source of power. • Products contained less defects. • All of these.
Stop for Questions 8. What factors played a key role in the start of the industrial revolution? • New manufacturing machines were being invented. • A new power source (steam) was introduced. • Products were beginning to be made in factories. • All of these.
Stop for Questions 9. Which of these is not a source of power? • Wind • Human • Water • Wheel
Stop for Questions 10. Before the steam engine where were most factories built? • In a big city. • Next to a river or stream. • On a lake. • In the mountains.
How Would You Like This Job…? • The earliest steam engine was operated by controlling two valves. Someone had to open and close each valve by hand continually to keep the engine running. • A boy named Humphrey Potter (no relation to Harry) grew bored doing this. He devised a method where the action of the engine would control the opening and closing of the valves in proper order. Putting his idea to work not only doubled the speed of the engine, but was the invention of the automatic valve.
Mass Production & Interchangeable Parts • American inventor, pioneer, mechanical engineer, and manufacturer, Eli Whitney is best remembered as the inventor of the cotton gin. • He also affected the industrial development of the United States when, in manufacturing muskets for the government, he translated the concept of interchangeable parts into a manufacturing system, giving birth to the American mass-production concept. • Source: National Inventors Hall of Fame Eli Whitney
“Necessity is the Mother of Invention.” • Prior to the development of the concept of interchangeable parts, products like guns were made one at a time by skilled craftsmen. Like pieces of art, no two products were identical. Even the screws were made by hand. • There were disadvantages to the consumer because of the way they were manufactured: 1. It took a long time to receive your gun because the gunsmith made it for you after you ordered it. 2. If a part broke, a new part would have to be made specifically for it. 3. Since it took so much of the gunsmith’s time to make each gun, each one cost a lot of money.
“Necessity is the Mother of Invention.” OOPS! The Trigger broke. Now what do I do? • The problem is that no matter how much money you had, it still took time to fix the gun if it broke. • In the middle of a battlefield that’s not a good thing. There were no “Time Outs”. • You aim, pull the trigger and it breaks. Since there’s no such thing as spare parts, the best you would be able to do is bat bullets as they’re coming at you! GOOD LUCK! • That’s the way it was until Whitney developed this concept of interchangeable parts.
“Necessity is the Mother of Invention.” • The newly formed U.S. government needed muskets for the army to fight the English. • As they do today, a call was made for bids from businesses that could make the weapons. No Gunsmith could manufacture the 10,000 muskets in the time the government needed them, and the cost was going too be high. • Eli Whitney claimed that he could make 10,000 in one year and at a fraction of the cost. To prove his point he brought the parts of a gun to Washington and had the president assemble them. He got the contract on the spot. Some of Whitney’s gun parts But how’d he do that??
Mass Production & Standardized Parts • Mass Production - making many copies of a product all at once, instead of one at a time. • Whitney’s four parts of a mass production system: Special Machines – Like the drill press Specialized Labor – Minimum wage vs Gunsmiths Jigs and fixtures – Helps unskilled labor do skilled work. A Standard System of Measurement - Rulers • THE KEY TO MASS PRODUCTION IS THAT THE PARTS ARE STANDARDIZED (Every trigger is identical to the others and fit any gun) Drill Press Cotton Gin
Stop for Questions 15. Who was given credit for developing the process of mass production? • James Watt. • Benjamin Franklin. • George Washington. • Eli Whitney.
Stop for Questions 16. What was Eli Whitney’s “Key” to a mass production system? • Lots of unskilled labor doing the work. • Hiring gunsmiths to do the work. • Standardized Parts. • Jigs and Fixtures.
Stop for Questions 17. What did Whitney mass produce for the new U.S. Government? • Muskets. • Machine Guns. • Tanks. • The Cotton Gin.
…and the rest… …is history!
Did You Know… • The first American factories were Textile. They made fabric/cloth. • The technology that these factories needed was in England. • The English Parliament wanted to keep these jobs and profits in England. As a result they passed laws against taking these inventions or their plans to the U.S. They wouldn’t even allow mechanics who worked in English factories to emigrate to the U.S. !– • HOWEVER… The “Spinning Jenny” The “Water Frame”
Technology Believe It or Whatever… • Samuel Slater, an experienced young mechanic who knew a great deal about the new machines decided to sneak out of England because he sympathized with the colonists. • In 1789 he left for the United States. He couldn’t bring drawings or plans with him. However, he had an excellent memory so he memorized them. Within a year, he had built the first textile mill in the U.S. from plans he drew straight from his head! Believe It!
Stop for Questions 18. The first American factories manufactured what product? • Muskets. • Textiles. • Automobiles. • Computers.
What made Henry Ford famous? • He didn’t invent the car. It was invented in France – “The Lavassor” in 1889. • He didn’t even make the first mass produced car in the U.S. He was beaten to the market by Random Eli Olds and his Oldsmobile. • He is best remembered for devising the factory assembly approach to production that revolutionized the auto industry by greatly reducing the time required to assemble a car from 14hrs to 1 ½ hrs, reducing the cost dramatically. • He perfected the “Assembly Line” Henry Ford
Think About It…. • Ford was beaten to the market by R.E. Olds because he was working on an engine that ran on a different fuel than gasoline. Olds patented the first engine that used gasoline in 1897, the Curved Dash Oldsmobile. • Ford gave up on his engine, converted to the gasoline engine in 1908 and in a short time out-produced Olds taking the lead in U.S. car manufacturing. The Curved Dash Oldsmobile 1907 Price - $650.00 Ford’s Model T 1908 Price - $850.00 1910 Price - $280.00 19,000 made in 1910 4000 made in 1907
What Fuel did Ford call“The Fuel of the Future”? • ALCOHOL (Ethyl Alcohol - Ethanol) • Made from vegetables like corn or potatoes or fruit. Renewable, burns clean, extinguishes with water. • There are cars that run on alcohol today. True False or
So why don’t all cars use alcohol? • IT COSTS MORE! (At least for now) Due to how little is manufactured compared to gasoline. • Even at $2.00 a gallon, Gasoline is much cheaper.
If you could go back in time and stop Olds long enough for Ford to finish an alcohol engine what would be different today?… • The Environment • The Economy • The World ONE PERSON AND ONE INVENTION CAN CHANGE THE COURSE OF HISTORY! YOU HAVE THE SAME POWER!!
Stop for Questions 19. Henry Ford invented the automobile. • True. • False.
Stop for Questions 20. Henry Ford perfected the ______ which allowed him to produce more cars at a lower cost to the consumer. • Assembly line. • Interchangeable part. • Gasoline Engine. • Installment plan.
Stop for Questions 21. The first mass produced vehicle in the U.S. was the…. • Oldsmobile. • Chevrolet. • Stanley Steamer. • Ford.
Stop for Questions 22. How long did it take Ford’s manufacturing plant to assemble a vehicle? • 14 hrs. • 14 days. • 1 ½ days. • 1 ½ hrs.